2008 Georgia-Russia war & HISTORY of the Conflict:

Georgia All Alone in Standoff with Russia - Support Georgia's Independance !

www.StopRussia.org

www.SOSGeorgia.org

FAQ: Read WHAT Russia did to Georgia in 90s: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/RUSSIA%20VERSUS%20GEORGIA.htm

Abkhazia and South Ossetia - Russia's Never-Ending Game:


Nearly 15 years after the end of a bitter war that included ethnic cleansing
and genocide. Booklet is based on Malcolm Linton's photo documentary covering aftermath of bloody war in Abkhazia.

The ethnic Abkhazs (or Apsuas as they call themselves) in Abkhazia represented some 17% of total Abkhazia's population before the war began and local 350,000 Georgians were expelled from their homes. Currently there are some 70,000 Abkhazs living in the whole of Abkhazia. The picture is not much better in South Ossetia. There are mere 50,000 Ossetians living in entire region that barely make up some 48% of the province's whole population....

History of the Conflict - more info:

Andrew Andersen

RUSSIA VERSUS GEORGIA :

ONE UNDECLARED WAR IN THE CAUCASUS

On September 30, 1993 Georgian troops retreated across the Inguri river, leaving behind Abkhazia, one of the richest provinces of the former Soviet republic whose independence was regained in April, 1991 as a result of the collapse of the USSR . Simultaneously with the evacuation of Georgian troops, Abkhazia was abandoned by almost 80% of its civilian population (Georgians, Greeks, Armenians and others). This was one of the results of an “unknown war” of 1991-93, that added one more destabilizing element to the whole bunch of conflicts in the troubled Caucasus . Another result was the establishment of a self proclaimed “ Republic of Abkhazia ” – an isolated territory under loose control of a violent, non-democratic regime, officially recognized by no government in the world.


The Abkhazian war posed quite a few questions, the main of which are the following:


1. How could Apsua-Abkhazians, a tiny ethnic group constituting less than 20% of the population of Abkhazia, succeed in seceding from Georgia ?


2. Which of the regional powers could be interested in the war and breakup of Georgia 's territorial integrity to such an extent that would allow its direct military intervention?

3. What are major international consequences of the war for Abkhazia?


This essay is an attempt to answer the above questions.



WHO COULD NEED AN “INDEPENDENT” ABKHAZIA?

At the beginning of 1991, it became clear that the USSR (at that moment still the USSR ) was going to lose Georgia , Armenia and Azerbaijan . The establishment of new independent countries in the Caucasus could be followed by their integration into international economic and political structures and possibly result in turning the area into one more sphere of Western influence. In order to prevent such transformation of the area, which Moscow viewed as its “political backyard”, the government of Gorbachev took steps in the direction of building up potentially destructive conflict situations in all three Transcaucasian countries. The final goal of Moscow politics was lebanization ” of the area that would lead to total or partial destruction and destabilization of the new states, making them less attractive for any new friends or allies. Later (after the collapse of the USSR) the Russian government of Boris Yeltsin was outraged by the new projects of building new pipeline systems that could connect oil fields of Central Asia and Azerbaijan to Western Europe through Georgian territory, by-passing Russian Federation. 

One of the ways of turning Georgia into a “chaotic territory with a flag ”( R. Peters) could be the kindling of some old inter-ethnic conflicts and turning them into civil wars of “Yugoslavian type”.

The multicultural Georgian province of Abkhazia was chosen to become one of the zones of inter-ethnic violence and war. In order to go ahead with the new “destabilization project”, local authorities (still communist-dominated at that moment), got instructions from Moscow to start propaganda campaign for the secession from Georgia and creation of a “sovereign Abkhazian state”. The idea of independence from Georgia was supported by a considerable part of the Apsua – descendants of a small North Caucasian tribe whose forefathers moved into Georgia in the 16th -17th centuries, as well as by some representatives of other non-Georgian minorities who feared possible development of “Georgian chauvinism”. At the same time the idea of dismemberment of Georgia was actively opposed by most Georgians residing both in- and outside Abkhazia. 

In order to escalate the conflict, Russian special services (KGB and after collapse of the USSR - FSB), started forming and training Apsua paramilitary units, while Russian troops deployed in Abkhazia, provided them with the best weapons from Russian military depots. In order to strengthen anti-Georgian forces in Abkhazia, Russian agents used Pan-Islamic feelings among part of North Caucasian Moslems (who by that time formed the “Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus”) and launched a propaganda campaign in North Caucasian subjects of Russian Federation, aimed at pushing North Caucasians towards helping their “brethren”(Apsua) to free themselves from Christian Georgia. Since the summer of 1991, numerous volunteers started coming to Abkhazia from Chechnya , Kabardia , Adyghea and other areas of North Caucasia . In Abkhazia, the volunteers were organized into new paramilitary units, armed, trained, paid in cash and promised land and houses in future “free Abkhazia”.

In their turn, various separatist groups of North Caucasia (still nominally under Russian rule), supported by North Caucasian and Apsuan diasporas in the Middle East and the USA, were planning the creation of an Islamic republic in North Caucasia. If they succeeded, the new state would be vitally interested in annexing Abkhazia because that would be an excellent chance for the landlocked North Caucasia to get access to the sea. As a result, in addition to weapons, volunteers and money coming from Russia and Russian Caucasus, Apsuan separatism was getting support in volunteers and cash from North Caucasian diasporas.

THE WAR

On July 23, 1992 the Council of Abkhazia (which in fact was never democratically elected) declared the province “a sovereign state”. Two days later The State Council of Georgia declared the Abkhaz declaration invalid. Two weeks later, 3,000 troops of the Georgian National Guard under the command of Tengiz Kitovani , were sent to Abkhazia to establish “the rule of law and order”. On August 14 1992, Apsua separatists and North Caucasian volunteers launched first attacks against Georgian National Guard. The skirmishes between Georgian and separatist troops went on until September, when most Abkhazian territory was put under Georgian control. However in October 1992, enforced by up to 4,000 Russian troops, the separatists re-took half of Abkhazia. During their offensive, Russian troops used their best weapons including tanks, and aircrafts while the Georgian National Guard and militias were armed predominantly with small arms. In addition, the Georgian National Guard lacked professionalism and discipline. All these factors, plus three major attacks launched just after the signing of cease-fire agreements, resulted in Georgian defeat. It should be mentioned however that officially Russia never declared war on Georgia and never recognized participation of its troops in the conflict. Even when accused in bombing civil targets and columns of refugees, Russian defense minister Pavel Grachev claimed that Georgians put Russian signs on their airplanes and bombed their own people. In January 1993, the government of Georgia addressed the United nations and asked to deploy international peacekeepers in Abkhazia. Soon after that desperate plea for help was declined, Russian and separatist forces launched new offensive and practically surrounded Sukhumi , the capital city of Abkhazia . At the end of July 1992, UN delegated the peacekeeping mandate in Abkhazia to Russian troops, which launched the third and the last “strategic offensive” that ended up in capture of Sukhumi (Sept.27) and final expultion of all Georgian troops out of Abkhazia.


WAR CRIMES AND ATROCITIES

Offensives of Russian, Apsuan and North Caucasian troops in Abkhazia was accompanied by ethnic cleansing and mass murder of civilians (predominantly Georgians but also Armenians, Greeks and others). Men, women and children were executed in the streets, on the roads, inside their own apartments, houses and back yards. Many people became objects of torture, children were slowly killed in front of their parents, parents – in front of their children. Women were raped, often with the elements of sadism. Refugees recall people being burned to death, disemboweled and dismembered while still alive. The province lost up to 250,000 or 80% of its pre-war inhabitants (up to 30,000 slaughtered on the spot, others flee to Georgia , Greece and Russia ). Those who watched news programs on the TV, recall the commands given by Russian officers: “ Rebyata , plennykh ne brat!” (Do not take prisoners alive!). Houses and land owned by Georgians and Greeks were taken over by the Apsuans , Russians, Chechens and other newcomers. None of war criminals involved in the above atrocities was ever brought to justice .


CONCLUSIONS

The war of 1992-93 in Abkhazia resulted in the following:


1. A self-proclaimed “ Republic of Abkhazia ” was formed on Georgian territory. Being occupied by Russian “peace-keeping” troops, it is not controlled by law-enforcement services either of Georgia or Russia , and may serve as a convenient area for arms-, drug- and terrorists-trafficking.


2. The war resulted in major changes of the ethnic makeup of Abkhazia which is illegal basing on the Geneva Convention of 1949. 


3. Georgia suffered considerable financial, human and moral losses (sociologists mention the so-called “Abkhazian Syndrome” among many Georgians). Georgian GDP dropped down to the level of 1960s, discouraged foreign investment, damaged the infrastructure of the country, drove up prices, caused increase of crime and unemployment. Due to the consequences of the war combined with corruption, embezzlement and patronage inherited from the years of communism, made Georgia much less stable country than it was before the war. The success of Abkhazian separatists boosted centrifugal tendencies in other provinces, such as Ajaria , South Ossetia and Javakhetia . Georgia can not be considered a “failed state”as represented by Russian propaganda but it had to go through very hard times and for a while, became a country of mass emigration.


4. In spite of traditional pro-Western orientation of many Georgians (they believe that they are natural part of Europe due to their old Christian culture), Georgian government was forced to take a number of steps towards becoming a part of the Russian sphere of influence. These steps include Georgia joining CIS (October 1993) and signing a series of bilateral agreements with Russia , applying serious limitations on Georgian sovereignty.


5. The war unleashed armed guerilla movement in Abkhazia organized by groups of local Georgians who believed that armed resistance is the only realistic way to put the province back under Georgian sovereignty. These armed groups include “White Legion” and “Forest Brothers”, as well as the armed residents of Kodori Gorge until recently controlled neither by Georgia , nor by Abkhazian separatists .

6. Russian tactics before and during the war, resulted in building up Chechen militants who later formed the bulk of the army of the self-proclaimed Republic of Chechnya- Ichkeria . Armed units of Chechen veterans of the Abkhazian war caused enormous casualties on Russian federal troops during the wars in Chechnya (1995-96 and 1999- ). The war in Chechnya in its turn, led to the build-up of Islamic guerrilla and terrorist networks in Chechnya , Daghestan and other areas of the Russian Caucasus.




WHY WAS THE SITUATION IN ABKHAZIA UNTIL RECENTLY LARGELY IGNORED BY THE WEST?


It is hard to disagree that the war in Abkhazia (1992-93) was to a greater or lesser degree ignored by Western politicians, analysts and media. The possible reasons for that could be the following:



1. Until recently, most Western governments and politicians believed that almost all actions of post-communist governments of Russian Federation should be given active or passive support in order to refrain from “rocking the boat”. It was believed that any anti-Russian criticism could help the restoration of communist totalitarianism in that country.


2. Georgia seemed to be “too far” from all the “sensitive” areas of the world. There was a common belief that Georgia did not belong to Europe (or at best, was at the margins of South Eastern Europe ). In any case, it was believed to be much less important than for example Bosnia or Kosovo, where ethnic violence happened almost in the center of Europe . On the other hand, it was also believed that Georgia did not belong to the Middle East either, and thus it was neglected by those interested in that part of the world. Even if we look at most of the political maps printed in the world during the last decade of the 20 th century, we will probably not even see Georgia on the map of Europe . Neither will we see it on the maps of the Middle East . And on some general maps of Asia printed at the eve of the 21 st century , Georgia would appear so small that it would be hardly even possible to distinguish it somewhere between Turkey , Iran and Russia .


Thus among the decision-making circles of the world, it was probably believed that the events that were taking place in happening in Georgia in 1992-93, were not important and deserved little or no attention.



WHY DOES THE SITUATION IN ABKHAZIA DESERVE MORE ATTENTION?


The situation in Georgia in general and in Abkhazia in particular, is important for the following reasons:


1. We live in the period of globalization, and any troubled spot on the surface of the planet may have global economic and political consequences.


2. Georgia like the whole of the South Caucasus, lies at the crossroads of the important routes connecting Europe, Asia, Middle East and Russia . Thus any instability in such an area can influence some or all of the above mentioned four regions


3. Georgia 's natural resources and relatively well developed infrastructure, as well as highly qualified and well educated labor force, make it potentially attractive for possible investors.





APPENDIX I:

WAR IN ABKHAZIA AND THE CHECHEN CONNECTION

Today, it is not a secret that prior and during the war of 1992-93 against Georgia, Moscow was training and supplying Chechen paramilitary formations , turning them into high class military professionals. Russian experts and journalists ( Masiuk , Nikitin , Vassilenko , Voronov , ) confirm that for example ,the infamous warlord Shamil Basayev , who in 1996 orchestrated the capture of Budennovsk and the end of the first Russo-Chechen war (1995-96), was an agent of Russian special service (FSB) sent with a special mission to Abkhazia. The above authors confirm that Georgians who captured Basayev in 1993, had to release him after Russian defense minister threatened to send aircrafts to bomb Tbilisi (the capital of Georgia ). They also stated that Basayev's connection with FSB was the reason why federal troops could not capture him until quite recently. Basayev's troops, well-known in Abkhazia and Georgia for massacre in the city of Gagra where they were beside all, playing soccer with the heads of Georgian women and children [3] , continued receiving training and weapons from the Russian defense ministry even after the war in Abkhazia [4] when they formed the core of the Chechen separatist army. It is hard to guess what “projects” they were trained for (at least this is far beyond the competence of the author of this essay) before the first Russo-Chechen war (1995-96). However, it is quite clear that they are a big problem for the Russian Federation today when the second Russo-Chechen war (1999- ) entered the phase of guerrilla and counter-guerrilla operations. It is also well known today that these forces form an important element in the guerrilla and terrorist rings formed by Osama Bin Laden and his allies.

APPENDIX II: ETHNIC MAKEUP OF ABKHAZIA

According to 01.01.1979 census

Ethnic group

amount

%

APSUA

83 000

17.1

GEORGIANS

213 000

43.8

RUSSIANS

80 000

16.5

ARMENIANS

73 000

15

GREEKS

14 000

3

UKRAINIANS

10 000

2.1

OTHERS

(JEWS, ESTONIANS, GERMANS, ETC…)

13 000

2.5

TOTAL

486 000

100

According to 01.01.1992 census

Ethnic group

amount

%

APSUA

94 767

17.7

GEORGIANS

244 872

45.7

RUSSIANS

76 413

14.3

ARMENIANS

78 041

14.6

OTHERS

(GREEKS, UKRAINIANS, JEWS, ESTONIANS, GERMANS, ETC…)

40 968

7.7

TOTAL

535 061

100

According to 01.01.1997 census

Ethnic group

amount

%

APSUA

53 993

37

GEORGIANS

43 442

29.7

RUSSIANS

18 110

12.4

ARMENIANS

17 747

12.2

OTHERS

12 694

8.7

TOTAL

145 986

100

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Boutroue Joel and Jones Stephen F. Prospect for the Return of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees to Abkhazia. UNHCR, May 1997. 
Bremmer Jan, Taras , Ray ( Eds ): New States New Politics: Building Post-Soviet Nations (1997 )
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Clarke, Bruce: An Empire's New Clothes: The End of Russia's Liberal Dream (1995 )
Cordier Bruno de. The Islamic Influence on Ethnic Nationalism in the North Caucasus : The Cases of Chechnia and Daghestan . Eurasian Studies, 1, Spring 1996. 
Crucified Georgia , 2000
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http://www.foa.150m.com
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Human Development Report: Georgia 1997. UNDP, Tbilisi , 1997: 30. 
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Nikitin , Pavel : Dudayev was Financed and Armed by Moscow , in “ Ogonyok ”, No. 15, April 1998
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Tania L. I., Argun A. Y., Tania A. G., The Problem of the Repatriation of Georgian Refugees to Abkhazia: Conflictogenous Aspect (in Russian), Perspektivy , Sukhum , 1995. 
Tarkhan-Mouravi , Gia : The Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict in a Regional Context http://www.abkhazeti.narod.ru/text/pubeng1/thegacinreg.htm 
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Texts and Graphics: Copyright © Andrew Andersen 2001 – 2002


URGENT: UNITED NATIONS Briefings:
http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs//2008/080826_Georgia.doc.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7585182.stm

Seven of the world's leading industrialised nations have jointly condemned Russia's decision to recognise Georgia's breakaway regions.
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the US and UK said Moscow's recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia violated Georgia's integrity and sovereignty.
Earlier, the UK's foreign secretary said Western countries should re-examine their relations with Russia.
David Miliband also warned Russia not to start a new Cold War.
Speaking during a visit to Ukraine, Mr Miliband said Moscow had not reconciled itself with the new map of the region and that the West should should look at ways to reduce its dependence on Russian oil and gas.

www.StopRussia.org






COUNTRY INFO:

"Georgia - the Country of Golden Fleece"

...Situated at the strategically important crossroads where Europe meets Asia, Georgia has a unique and ancient cultural heritage, famous traditions of hospitality and cuisine and an alphabet which is entirely its own.
It also has a history of winemaking said to date back thousands of years.

Population: 5 million (UN, 2005)
Capital: Tbilisi
Area: 69,700 sq km (26,911 sq miles)
State language: Georgian
Major religion: Orthodox Christianity

Encyclopedia Britannica about Georgia/Sakartvelo:
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44318/Georgia

History > Origins of the Georgian nation:

"...Early in the 1st millennium BC, the ancestors of the Georgian nation emerge in the annals of Assyria and, later, of Urartu. Among these were the Diauhi (Diaeni) nation, ancestors of the Taokhoi, who later domiciled in the southwestern Georgian province of Tao, and the Kulkha, forerunners of the Colchians, who held sway over large territories at the eastern end of the Black Sea. The fabled wealth of Colchis became known quite early to the Greeks and found symbolic expression in the legend of Medea and the Golden Fleece...
In Greek mythology Colchis was the home of Medea and the destination of the Argonauts, a land of fabulous wealth and the domain of sorcery..."

- Encyclopedia Britannica ( http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44320/Georgia )

...The world history counts not a few cases, when some nation, at a critical stage of its ethnic evolution, abandons its historical homeland, changes its values and priorities, the stereotypes which regulate the behaviour of the ethnos, picks up a new language or religion, and finally, undergoes either, a transformation of its initial ethnic culture or a complete assimilation.

Although, the Georgians faced many times the danger of loosing the features, determining their ethnic individuality, but - at the price of great sacrifice they still succeeded in preserving the major part of their homeland, mother-tongue and religion, due to the fact, that from the earliest stages of their history, they understood the role of the utmost militant alertness and the unyielding strive for liberty in order to save their own national identity...


History of Georgia

Two early Georgian kingdoms of late antiquity, known to ancient Greeks
and Romans as Iberia in the east of the country and Colchis
in the west, were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity
(in 337 AD, or in 319 AD as recent research suggests.). Ancient Greeks (Strabo,
Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.) and Romans (Titus Livius, Cornelius Tacitus,
etc.) referred to early eastern Georgians as Iberians (Iberoi in some
Greek sources) and western Georgians as Colchians.

Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi their land Sakartvelo
, and their language Kartuli
.According to legend the ancestor of the
Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great grandson of the Biblical Japheth. The
terms Georgia and Georgians appeared in Western Europe in numerous medieval
annals.The name has been mistakenly supposed to be derived from the country's
patron St. George.Some also believed that Georgia was so named by the Greeks
on account of its agricultural resources, since "Georgia" means "farming"
in Greek. However, the true origin of the name Georgia is still disputed.


In Greek Mythology, Colchis was the location of the Golden
Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts in Apollonius Rhodius' epic
tale Argonautica.
The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into
the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold
dust from rivers. Known to its natives as Egrisi or Lazica, Colchis often saw
battles between the rival powers of Persia and the Byzantine Empire, both of
which managed to conquer Western Georgia from time to time. As a result, those
Kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages.
This made it easy for Arabs to conquer Georgia in the 7th century. The rebellious
regions were liberated and united into a unified Georgian Kingdom at the beginning
of the 11th century. Starting in the 12th century AD, the rule of Georgia extended
over a significant part of the Southern Caucasus, including the northeastern
parts and almost the entire northern coast of what is now Turkey.



The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries.
This period has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance.





The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing
it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the
Georgian language and alphabet. This has provided a strong sense of national
identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated
periods of foreign occupation and attempted assimilation...

CULTURE OF GEORGIA/Sakartvelo (Music,Art,Science,Famous Georgians
etc):



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Georgia


In the 330s Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia. This marked the beginning
of vigorous development of arts and letters. Members of the high society of Kartli and Egrisi
were well acquainted with the literature and philosophy of the East and the West. Among them
were eminent scholars-philosophers: Peter the Iberian and loané the Laz (5th cent.). Centers of
culture and enlightenment also existed in Georgia, some being of international significance. In
the 4th century a school of rhetoric and philosophy functioned not far from the town of Phasis
(modern Poti). Along with representatives of the local nobility students from abroad were also
taught at the school:
It was the alma mater of the famous Greek philosopher and rhetorician
Themistius who says that his father Eugenius had also learned wisdom at that school.

Joane Petrizi
(12th century) - the most significant Georgian medieval
philosopher - devoted intensive work to neo-Platonic philosophy:

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/joane-petrizi/





Modern Georgia: The Georgian Academy of Sciences unites the scientific-research institutions
of the Republic where the fundamental research in almost all main fields of
science is carried out. The Academy coordinates scientific research in Georgia
and develops relationship with the academies of foreign countries and other
scientific centers.



At present there are 65 academicians and 64 corresponding members working at
the Academy. The Georgian Academy of Sciences develops rich national scientific
traditions which the Georgian nation created in the course of centuries. It
is a well known fact that many centuries ago outstanding Georgian scholars made
brilliant translations and created original works in educational and scientific
centers well known in their times, such as the school of philosophy and rhetoric
in Colchis(Western Georgia) (4th c), the centers of spiritual culture in Palestine (5th
c.), Syria (6th c.), Greece (10th - 15th c.c.) and Bulgaria (11th c.) as well
academies of Gelati and Ikalto (11th-12th c.c.) in Georgia.

http://www.acnet.ge/index.html



Georgia is One of the birthplaces of Astronomy:


- Ancient artifacts found show astronomical and astrological signs inc. Zodiac
signs

- Zorats Kerer stonehenge, the first astronomical observatory, Ughtasar petroglyphs
are all approx. 7000 - 9000 years old.


Steel and Ironmongery:


- Georgian tribe Chalybi were first to discover and master steel and
iron.( In Greek steel is called: Chalybas)


Caucasus/Georgia is the birthplace of winemaking:


- Out of 2000 grape varieties, 500 are Georgian

- Indo-European word for wine (vino, wein etc) derives from Georgian 'Ghvino'.

- World's oldest wine grape seed, 7000 year old wine vessel, ancient artifacts
with wine motifs etc have been found in Georgia.




Georgian MUSIC:


Georgian national music is characterized by Polyphony, which distinguishes
it from its neighbors like Armenia. Georgian folk remains vibrant across
the country, while modern rock and pop also exists.



Georgian folk songs are often centered around feasts, where songs and toasts
to God, long life and other topics. Traditional feast songs include "Zamtari",
which is about winter and is sung to commemorate ancestors, and "Mravalzhamier",
a joyous hymn. Work songs are also widespread. The "Orovela", for example, is
a type of work song found in eastern Georgia with Armenian characteristics such
as a lack of polyphony.



Complex polyphony is distinctively Georgian, usually featuring a primarily
melody sung by the middle voice with supporting vocals often producing countermelodies.
Choirs are generally entirely male, though some female groups also exist; mixed-gender
choirs are rare. Kakheti in eastern Georgia has the most famous polyphonic vocal
traditions.
The drinking song "Chakrulo", featuring typically Kakhetian
voices, two intertwined soloists with dissonance, tensions and releases, was
chosen to accompany the Voyager spacecraft in 1977.
Dissonance is prominent
in the west, in Mingrelia and Guria, which also features, high pitches and outrageous,
yodelling-like vocals called krimanchuli. Svaneti's traditions
are perhaps the oldest and most traditional due to the region's isolation. Svan
harmonies are irregular and angular, and the middle voice leads two supporting
vocals, all with a narrow range. The 20th century has seen professional choirs
achieve renown in Georgia, especially Anzor Erkomaishvili's Rustavi Choir.



Georgia is home to a form of urban music with sentimental, lovelorn lyrics,
as well as a more rough and crude urban music featuring clarinets, doli and
duduks.





"Georgian Legend"
- The Best Folk/Music/Dance show in the
world !
Georgian Folk Dancing company were the only ones ever of its kind to perform at the great La Scala Milan. It beat all records having 3 encours and 14 curtian lifts:




http://georgianlegend.com




Georgian Theatre has a long history;
it's oldest national form was the
"Sakhioba" (extant from the 3rd century BC to the 17th century
AD). The Georgian National Theatre was founded in 1791 in Tbilisi, by the writer,
dramatist and diplomat Giorgi Avalishvili (1769-1850). Its leading actors
were Dimitri Aleksi-Meskhishvili, David Machabeli, David Bagrationi, Dimitri
Cholokashvili and others.



Robert Sturua (born July 31, 1938) is a Georgian theater director, who
gained international acclaim for his original interpretation of the works of
Brecht, Shakespeare, Chekhov. He is based at the Shota Rustaveli
Dramatic Theater in Tbilisi, and has staged productions throghout the world.



More About Robert Sturua: http://www.rustavelitheatre.ge/dacheraze_eng.php?dasi_id=74

EASTERN PROMOTION:

Offering music since 1998,  Eastern Promotion has promoted in the Caucasus region notable and highly acclaimed musicians including Ray Charles, James Brown,  George Benson, Al Jarreau, Bobby McFerrin, Maceo Parker, The Manhattan Transfer, Take 6, Roy Ayers, Coolio, John McLaughlin,  Joe Zawinul, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Garry Barton, Jamiroquai, Shakira, Joe Cocker and others.  

The company is owned by five enthusiasts and music aficionados who are dedicated to promoting world class music in the region, as well as promoting the best Georgian music and artists overseas.   From private corporate events to festivals and large-scale concert, we provide exceptional organizational skills and services.  In addition, we proudly maintain strong relations with most leading booking agencies worldwide.

Our experience dates back to the USSR's first annual Tbilisi Jazz Festival in 1978 and the Rock Festival of 1980, both of which were managed and organized by several of our members.  Today Eastern Promotion is the largest organizer of jazz festivals in the countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. 

For almost a decade we have established and maintained a reputation as one of the most respected agencies for jazz, blues and other musical genres in the world.  

http://www.easternpromotion.com/about.html


FAMOUS GEORGIANS:


http://www.geocities.com/famousgeorgians1/index.html



George Balanchine (original name: Georgy Melitonovich Balanchivadze)
was an American ballet choreographer of Georgian descent. Balanchine
is most influential choreographer of classical ballet in the United States
in the 20th century. His works, characterized by a cool neoclassicism, include
The Nutcracker (1954) and Don Quixote (1965), both pieces choreographed for
the New York City Ballet, of which he was a founder (1948).



His work formed a bridge between classical and modern ballet.



The George Balanchine Foundation:


http://balanchine.org/01/index.html


Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin (Gedeanishvili)
- major Russian nationalist
Composer of the 19th century. He was also a scientist notable for his research
on aldehydes.

Borodin's father was a Georgian prince (Luka Semyonovich Gedeanishvili) . As
a boy he received a good education, including piano lessons, but he was eventually
to earn a doctorate in medicine at the Medico&150;Surgical Academy, the later
home to Ivan Pavlov, and to pursue a career in chemistry (just as his comrade
Cesar Cui would do in the field of military fortifications). As a result of
his work in chemistry and difficulties in his home-life, Borodin was not as
prolific in writing music as many of his contemporaries were -- hence his own
description of himself as a "Sunday composer." He died during a festive
ball, where he was participating with much vigor; he suddenly collapsed from
heart failure. He was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery,
in St. Petersburg, Russia.

read more:

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9080770/Aleksandr-Borodin



Alexander Toradze



The Toradze studio have received
high praise for their contributions to the piano world, and has developed into
a worldwide touring ensemble that has gathered critical acclaim on an international
level. In the recent season the Studio appeared in Salzburg, New York, Rome,
Florence, Venice, Ravenna, Lisbon, Ruhr Festival, among others. Mr. Toradze
continuously appears with worlds leading orchestras such as Berlin Philharmonic,
Kirov Orchestra, La Scala Philharmonic, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Bayerische
Rundfunk Orchester, St. Petersburg Philharmonic, Orchestre National de France,
City of Birmingham Symphony, London's Symphony, Philharmonic and Philharmonia
Orchestras, NHK in Japan, Czech, Hungarian, Israel, Rotterdam, Warsaw Philharmonics,
the radio orchestras in Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland and Italy.



Columbia Artists Management about Toradze:



http://www.cami.com/?webid=503



Katie Melua's Fan Group !




Ketevan "Katie" Melua (born 16 September 1984) is a British-Georgian
singer, songwriter and musician.



She was born in the country of Georgia, but moved to Northern Ireland
at the age of eight and then relocated to England at the age of 14. Melua is
signed to the small Dramatico record label, under the management of songwriter
Mike Batt, and made her musical debut in 2003.



In 2006, she was the United Kingdom's biggest-selling female artist and
Europe's highest selling European female artist !!!





Join Her Fan Group: http://groups.myspace.com/KatieMeluaFan



PS: Orthodox Christians! JOIN NEW FORUM:




http://groups.myspace.com/OrthodoXrist



..The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the world's most ancient


Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew...


MORE INFO ABOUT GEORGIA/SAKARTVELO:


TBILISI - Georgia's Capital Info:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tbilisi



All Info about TBILISI & Modern Georgia:


http://info-tbilisi.com


st. Queen Tamar of Georgia = Georgia's Golden Age !




Georgians, Join her Myspace page:



http://groups.myspace.com/QueenTamarOfGeorgia



st. Shota Rustaveli's Fan Group & his Perfect Epic Poem "The
Man in the Panther's Skin"



http://groups.myspace.com/Rustaveli



Read "The Man in the Panther's Skin"

by Shot'ha Rust'haveli

translated by Marjory Scott Wardrop

Read Online Book:

http://www.sacred-texts.com/asia/mps/index.htm



ECONOMY - Invest In Georgia:



"Georgia made the most extensive reforms,ranking as the top reformer
for the second year ina row...It is now as easy to comply with building regulations
in Tbilisi as it is in Hong Kong." - World Bank

More Info:

http://www.investingeorgia.org/


The Richest Georgians of the World

For the past 12 years the Georgian Times (Georgia Republic/Sakartvelo) has
been conducting an annual business rating to reveal the best companies and businessmen
of the year. This time we made up a top 80 rich Georgians of the planet on the
basis of the data provided by independent experts and famous businessmen (who
requested anonimity).

The capital of the wealthiest Georgians reflects the volume of assets and liabilities,
business and the market share that these people are holding.

The list of the richest Georgians of the world is being published for the first
time and may contain some minor inaccuracies which will be improved in the future, see the List:


http://geotimes.ge/index.php?m=home&newsid=3190


TBILISI VIDEOs:



click below to see: Video Tour in central street of Tbilisi at the night:

http://www.hotels.ltd.ge/video-audio/video2.php



All about Otar Ioseliani &

Amazing GEORGIAN CINEMA :




http://www.geocinema.org.ge/eng/main.htm



One of the most acclaimed Italian film directors Federico Fellini was one of the admirers of the Georgian film: "Georgian film is a strange phenomenon, special, philosophically light, sophisticated and at the same time childishly pure and innocent. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it (my crying) is not an easy thing".

Nana Dzhordzhadze -


Nana was born in Tblisi, Georgia, then part of the Soviet Union. She studied architecture
in her home town and was an architect from 1968 to 1973. From 1974, she drew closer
to the movie world and studied cinema at the Tbilisi film school. She did several
jobs on the set (costumer, set designer, actress) but what she favored was film
direction and she made several films, often shorts, before winning the "Camera
d'Or" Award at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. She is one of the leading
filmmakers of Georgia, alongside Otar Ioseliani.


More Info & Awards for "27 Missing Kisses" by Nana
Dzhordzhadze http://us.imdb.com/title/tt0246405/awards


Georgi Daneliya
- is a Soviet/Russian film director of Georgian descent,
who became known throughout the Soviet Union for his sad comedies (as he styles
them), bittersweet as the life itself: http://us.imdb.com/name/nm0199381/bio


PS: Georgian beauty - Georgian beauty was famed since the ancient times:

- All harems were mostly composed of Georgian women

- Remarkable amount of literature has been dedicated to Georgian beauty by such
authors as G. Byron, I. Kant, J. Chardin, A. Dumas, P. Angelus etc

- Scientists like J F Blumenbach considered Georgians scientifically the perfect
prototype of white race, and all beauty should be compared to it.

----

?????????? ???? ?з ??? (??????? ????????? ????????????)




?????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ? ????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????, ? ??????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. (?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?? ?????, ?????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??. ? ??. ?????? ??????? ?????????.)

? ??????? ???????? ??????? (?????, ??????, ???????, ??????? ? ??.) ?? ????? ???. ??? ?? ?. ?. ???????? ????? ?????? ???????; ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????, ???????? ????????, ?????????, ?????????, ???????? ? ??. ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ?????? (428?348 ?? ?. ?.) ? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ??? ?????????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ? ???????? ????????? ?? ? ?? ?????????? ????????, ? ? ??????????-????????????? ????? (????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ????????????, ? ??? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????). ?????????? ??? ??????? (? ???????? 30 ???) ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?? 35 ??? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????? (384?322 ?? ?. ?.) ??????, ??? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? (??????????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ?? ????????) ? ??? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????. ? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? (3 ?. ?? ?. ?.?5 ?. ?. ?.) ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????, ? ??????? ? ????? ? ??????????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????, ????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????.

?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ????. ?? ???? ???????? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????, ????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ????. ? 11-12 ??. ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????????, ?? ? ??????????, ????, ??????????? (?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? - ???????, 11 ?.). ? 12-13 ??. ? ????????? ??????? ?????? (??????, ???????, ???????, ??????) ????? ????????? ????????????, ? 1348 ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????. ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????, ????????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? 5-6 ???.


? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? (? ??????????? ????????) ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? (4 ?.), ? ????? ????????, ????????? ? 11-12 ??. (??????, ?????? ? ??.). ????????? ???????? (?????? ???????) ????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? - ? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????, ??????????, ?????????, ??????????, ????????, ??????. ????? ????, ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????, ????????, ?????????????, ??????????????, ????????? ? ???????? ?????.

? 1632 ????????? ?????? ??????-?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????-??????????? ????????, ? ??????? ????????? ????., ???. ? ????. ?????, ????? ????????? ????????? (??????????, ????????, ??????????, ??????????, ?????????, ??????????, ??????) ? ??????????. ? 1687 ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????-?????-????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ????????????? ? ?. ?. ?????????.

????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????. ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? (14 ?., ?????? ??????????? ? ??????, ? 16 ?.) ? ??????? ??????????, ????????, ?????????? (???????? ?? ?????, ?. ????????, ?. ??????, ?. ???????, ?. ??????, ?. ??????, ?. ???????), ? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????. ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?. ???????.

???????? ? ????????-????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????, ????? ?????????????, ?. ?????, ?. ?????, ?. ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????, ??????, ???????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????, ?????????????; ? ?????? ? ????????, ??????, ?????? ? ??????????; ? ???????? ? ????????, ???????? ? ?.?. ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? (15 ?.). ? ????????????? ? ????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ???? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?. ?. ??????????, ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????.

? 17 ?. ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? (?? ???????, ??????, ????????), ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????, ??????????, ?????????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????.

???????? ???????, ???????????? ????, ???????????? ? ???????? ? ????? 17 ? ?????? 18 ??., ?????????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ? ??????. ? 1725 ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ??? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?? ????????? ???????? ????????-?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?? ??????-??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ? ???? ??????, ? ?????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????. ? 1758 ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ??????????????? ?? 1-? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ????, ????? ????? ??????? ? ???? ??????, ????? ???? ??? ??????, ? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ??????; ?? 2-? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ?? 3-? ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ? ????? ??????.

? 1755 ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ???? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ?????????? ???????????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????????.

??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ????????? (? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????) ?? 2-? ???????? 18 ?. ? ??????, ? ????? ? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????. ? 1773 ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? (???? ????????????? ?????? ????????), ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????. ? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???????, ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????, ???????????, ???????????, ?????????, ?????, ????????, ??????, ???????????, ????????, ????????? ?????. ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ? ?????? 19 ?. ? ???? ???? ????????: ?????????????, ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?????, ???????? ? ???????, ???????? ? ??????? ???????, ?????????, ??????, ????????, ????????, ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??., ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????.

??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ? 18 ?. ? ? 1-? ???????? 19 ?. ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ????????? ? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????-??????????? ?. ?. ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????, ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????, ? ? ???????? ????????? ????. ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????.

???????? ?????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????? 1861 ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????.

???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????????????, ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ????????, ? ????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????? ? ??., ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????

? 70-? ??. 19 ?. ??????, ??? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????: ? ??????, ??????, ?????????? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?? ?????? ???????????

?? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? 19 ? ?????? 20 ??. ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ???? ??????-?????????????? ?????, ? ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????? ? ??. ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? (? ??????????? ? 1876 ? ? ?????? ? 1900). ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?. ?. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????-????????????????? ? ????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????. ????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ?????. ??????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?????? ? ?. ????????.

????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?? ??????, ?. ?. ????????????????? ????????? (????? ?. ?., ????. ????. ???., 5 ???., ?. 41, ?. 301). ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?. ?. ??????? (2 ???????? 1921) ????????, ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ?????.

????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???, ????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????-????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????, ????? ??????????, ??????????????????. ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????????? ????????, ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????, ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????????. ? ????????????? ?? ??? (?) ?? 12 ?????? 1925 ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???? ? ???. ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????. ???? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ????? ? ??? ???????, ? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????.

????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????. ? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? 19 ???????? 1932 ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????????.

???????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ???? ? ???????????. ??? ?????? ?????, ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??? "? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????" ?? 2 ??????? 1918, ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? (???????), ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????, ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????????

???????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ? 1914/15 ??????? ???? ? ?????? (? ??????????? ????????) ????????? 127,4 ???. ???. ? 105 ?????, ? 1970 ? ????? 4,6 ???. ????????? ? 805 ?????. ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ?? 10 ???. ???. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????? ??????.

??? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ????? 20 ?????? 1924, ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????. ?????? ? ??? ?. ?. ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????-?????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????. ?? 1 ?????? 1970 ? ????? ???? 327,2 ???. ??????-?????????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? 10,4 ???. ???????? ? 95,3 ???. ?????????? ????.....