REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA - COUNTRY INFO:

 

GEORGIAN FLAG

 

..... Caucasoid race is a term used in physical anthropology to refer to people falling within a certain range of anthropometric measurements. The concept of a "Caucasian race" or Varietas Caucasia was first proposed under those names by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840). His studies based the classification of the Caucasian race primarily on skull features, which Blumenbach claimed were optimized by the Caucasian Peoples. Blumenbach writes:

"Caucasian variety - I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighbourhood, and especially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian; and because all physiological reasons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones of mankind".......

[ The term Caucasian race (also Caucasoid, Europid, or Europoid) has been used to denote the general physical type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Historically, the term has been used to describe the entire population of these regions, without regard necessarily to skin tone. In common use, specifically in American English, the term is sometimes restricted to Europeans and other lighter-skinned populations within these areas, and may be considered equivalent to the varying definitions of White People. ]

Homo Georgicus: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/291/5509.cover-expansion


Discoveries in Dmanisi,Georgia are Transforming our View of Human Evolution:

Early human fossils, dubbed Homo georgicus, were found at Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia) between 1991 and 2005. At 1.8 million years old, H. georgicus may have been a separate species of Homo, predating Homo erectus, and represent the earliest stage of human presence in the Caucasus.

Subsequently, four fossil skeletons were found, showing a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with relatively advanced spines and lower limbs. They are now thought not to be a separate species, but to represent a stage soon after the transition between Australopithecus and Homo erectus, and have been dated at 1.8 million years:

 

NEWS:

 

'Mind-boggling' skull discovery offers researchers a view into the ancient past

 

The discovery of a 1.8 million-year-old skull at Dmanisi in Georgia has revolutionized scientists' idea of human evolution. Paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University joins Jeffrey Brown to discuss what these ancient remains teach us about our ancestors and origins:

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/july-dec13/ancestry2_10-18.html

 

OFFICIAL WEBSITE

http://dmanisi.ge/

READ MORE:

http://www.museum.ge/web_page/index.php

http://www.dmanisi.org.ge

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/291/5509.cover-expansion

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4418363.stm

http://www.science.org.ge/english.html

 

" Georgia - The land of the Golden Fleece "

...Situated at the strategically important crossroads where Europe meets Asia, Georgia has a unique and ancient cultural heritage, famous traditions of hospitality and cuisine and an alphabet which is entirely its own.
It also has a history of winemaking said to date back thousands of years:

Population: 5 million (UN, 2005)
Capital: Tbilisi
Area: 69,700 sq km (26,911 sq miles)
State language: Georgian
Major religion: Orthodox Christianity


The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing
it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the
Georgian language and alphabet. This has provided a strong sense of national
identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated
periods of foreign occupation and attempted assimilation,

The world history counts not a few cases, when some nation, at a critical stage of its ethnic evolution, abandons its historical homeland, changes its values and priorities, the stereotypes which regulate the behaviour of the ethnos, picks up a new language or religion, and finally, undergoes either, a transformation of its initial ethnic culture or a complete assimilation.

Although, the Georgians faced many times the danger of loosing the features, determining their ethnic individuality, but - at the price of great sacrifice they still succeeded in preserving the major part of their homeland, mother-tongue and religion, due to the fact, that from the earliest stages of their history, they understood the role of the utmost militant alertness and the unyielding strive for liberty in order to save their own national identity...

 

PEOPLE AND HISTORY

 

Georgia's recorded history dates back more than 2,500 years. Georgian, a South Caucasian (or "Kartvelian") language, unrelated to any outside the immediate region, is one of the oldest living languages in the world and has its own distinct alphabet. Located in the picturesque Mtkvari River valley, Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is more than 1,550 years old. In the early 4th century, Georgia became the second nation in the world to officially adopt Christianity. Georgia has historically been situated on the margins of great empires, and Georgians have lived together in a unified state for only a fraction of their existence as a people. Since at least the 1st century B.C. through the 18th century, much of Georgia's territory was fought over by Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Mongol, and Turkish armies. The zenith of Georgia's power as an independent kingdom came in the 11th and 12th centuries, during the reigns of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar, who rank among the most celebrated of all Georgian rulers:

www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5253.htm



Encyclopedia Britannica about Georgia/Sakartvelo:

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44318/Georgia

The history of Georgia can be traced back to the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, and it was one of the first countries to adopt Christianity, in the 4th century. Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David and Queen Tamar in 11th and 12th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire. After a brief period of independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia was annexed by Russian red army in 1921 and in 1922 Georgia was incorporated into the Soviet Union.

The independence of Georgia was restored in 1991. Like many post-communist countries, Georgia suffered from the economic crisis and civil unrest during the 1990s. After the Rose Revolution, the new political leadership introduced democratic reforms...


Origins of the Georgian nation:



"...Early in the 1st millennium BC , the ancestors of the Georgian nation emerge in the annals of Assyria and, later, of Urartu. Among these were the Diauhi (Diaeni) nation, ancestors of the Taokhoi, who later domiciled in the southwestern Georgian province of Tao, and the Kulkha, forerunners of the Colchians, who held sway over large territories at the eastern end of the Black Sea. The fabled wealth of Colchis became known quite early to the Greeks and found symbolic expression in the legend of Medea and the Golden Fleece...
In Greek mythology Colchis was the home of Medea and the destination of the Argonauts, a land of fabulous wealth and the domain of sorcery..."

The Georgians (Georgian: ქართველები, kartvelebi) are an ethnic group that have originated in Georgia, where they constitute a majority of the population. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, European Union, United States, and South America.

The majority of Georgians are Eastern Orthodox Christian and largely adhere to the national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church, which originated in the 4th century. There are also Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities in Tbilisi and Adjara.

The Georgian people went through a complex process of nation-formation and currently comprise a diverse set of geographic subgroups, each with its characteristic traditions, manners, dialect and, in the case of Mingrelians and Svans, language. The Georgian language, with its own alphabet and long written tradition going back to the 5th century, is the language of literacy and education of all Georgians living in Georgia as well as the official language of the country. Georgian, Mingrelian and Svan, together with Laz spoken by the related Laz people form the Kartvelian language family.

Located at the edge of Europe, the Georgian people have fought to protect their Christian identity in the face of immense pressure from the neighboring Muslim empires. By the early 11th century they formed a unified kingdom which emerged as a dominant regional power until it was weakened by internal divisions following the death of George V the Brilliant, the last of the great kings of Georgia. To ensure its survival as a Christian kingdom, the country was soon forced to forge an alliance with the Russian Empire, which was viewed as a replacement for the fallen Eastern Roman Empire, Georgia's traditional ally. Eventually being annexed by Russia in 1801, Georgians briefly regained national independence from 1918 to 1921, and finally, in 1991 from the Soviet Union.

 

WORLD FAMOUS GEORGIANS

 

Appearance , Language:

Georgians are classified as Caucasoids (Europoid or Europid), and are often slender with brown hair and brown eyes. Georgians who have historically lived in alpine areas of less sunny western Georgia - especially Mingrelians and Svans- tend to have lighter features, with higher frequency of blond hair and light blue or green eyes.

Studies of human genetics suggest that Georgian Y-DNA typically belongs to Haplogroup J2, also found in Greece and Italy, as well as Haplogroup G.

Like most native Caucasian peoples , the Georgians do not fit into any of the main ethnic categories of Europe or Asia. The Georgian language , the most pervasive of the South Caucasian languages , is neither Indo-European, Turkic nor Semitic . The present day Georgian or Kartvelian nation is thought to have resulted from the fusion of aboriginal, autochthonous -inhabitants with immigrants who infiltrated into South Caucasus from the direction of Anatolia in remote antiquity.



- Encyclopedia Britannica ( http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44320/Georgia )

 

[ More about GEORGIAN PEOPLE (PDF) ]

 

Miss Georgia

 

MORE INFO:

http://www.MissGeorgia.ge/

 

GEORGIAN MUSIC:

...Polyphony is one of the less comprehended phenomenon of the musical thinking. The interest in making research on it has been significantly increased over the last period. The map presented on this page indicates the areas all over the world where the polyphonic music has been spread:

http://www.polyphony.ge/?lng=eng

Over its three thousand years of history , Georgia allocated on the border line of Asia and Europe has developed its unique polyphonic musical culture.
Georgians have enriched the treasury of the world by its special polyphonic musical folklore and church music. Since the ancient times three-part singing has been the norm of Georgian musical thinking. Everybody who has ever had a touch with Georgian polyphonic forms recognizes their diversity and excellence.

[ GEORGIAN Music Info ]

 

Georgian Money - LARI

 

 

INVEST IN GEORGIA:

 

The World`s Leading Reformer The World Bank hails Georgias meteoric five-year rise from 112thin 2005 to 11th in the 2010 World Bank & IFC “Doing Business” Index as unprecedented. “Since the World Bank began keeping records,” says survey author Simeon Djankov, “no other country has made so many deep reforms in so many different areas so consistently.”

http://www.investingeorgia.org/?40/10_reasons_to_invest_in_georgia/

 

PLACE TO VISIT: BATUMI , Georgia:

Batumi (Georgian: ბათუმი) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. It has a population of 121,806 (2002 census).

Batumi, with its large port and commercial center, is also the last stop of the Transcaucasian Railway and the Baku oil pipeline. It is situated some 20 km (12 mi) from the Turkish border, in a subtropical zone, rich in agricultural produce such as citrus fruit and tea. Industries include shipbuilding, food processing, and light manufacturing.

 

Batumi , Republic of Georgia

MORE INFO/PICS:

http://www.batumi.ge/en/index.php?page=gallery&file=1/

 

Batumi , Georgia

 

Batumi lies at the northern periphery of the humid subtropical zone. The city's climate is heavily influenced by the onshore flow from the Black Sea and is subject to the orographic effect of the nearby hills and mountains, resulting in significant rainfall throughout most of the year, making Batumi the wettest city in both Georgia and the entire Caucasus Region.

The average annual temperature in Batumi is approximately 14 °C. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 7 °C. August is the hottest month with an average temperature of 22 °C. The absolute minimum recorded temperature is -9 °C, and the absolute maximum is 40 °C. The number of days with daily temperatures above 10 °C is 239. The city receives 1958 hours of sunshine per year.

Batumi's average annual precipitation is 2,718mm. (107.0 in.). September is the wettest month with an average of 335mm. (13.19 in.) of precipitation, while May is the driest, averaging 92mm (3.62 in.). Batumi generally does not receive significant amounts of snow (accumulating snowfall of more than 30 cm.), and the number of days with snow cover for the year is 12. The average level of relative humidity ranges from 70-80%

 

 

 

Georgia-Russia war:

 

StopRussia.org

 

http://pik.tv/en/news/story/19617-saakashvili-criticizes-russia-at-the-un-assembly

On 8 August, 2008, Russian troops advanced into Georgia's South Ossetia. An estimated 128,000 Georgians fled their homes as a result of the conflict between Russia and Georgia. Of these, an estimated 30,000 Georgians fled from their villages in South Ossetia, many of whom are unable to return to their homes. These Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are living in very difficult conditions in temporary housing. Many are traumatized and most are unable to earn a living. They are in great need of humanitarian assistance.

Your tax deductable financial gift is the most important single action you can take to help the vulnerable children and elderly in Georgia - please VISIT:

www.afgeorgia.org

www.SOSGeorgia.org


FAQ: Read WHAT Russia did to Georgia in 90s: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/RUSSIA%20VERSUS%20GEORGIA.htm


Abkhazia and South Ossetia - Russia's Never-Ending Game:



Nearly 15 years after the end of a bitter war that included ethnic cleansing
and genocide.
Booklet is based on Malcolm Linton's photo documentary covering aftermath of bloody war in Abkhazia.

The ethnic Abkhazs (or Apsuas as they call themselves) in Abkhazia represented some 17% of total Abkhazia's population before the war began and local 350,000 Georgians were expelled from their homes. Currently there are some 70,000 Abkhazs living in the whole of Abkhazia. The picture is not much better in South Ossetia. There are mere 50,000 Ossetians living in entire region that barely make up some 48% of the province's whole population....

(MORE INFO: click to read...)

UNITED NATIONS Briefings:


http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs//2008/080826_Georgia.doc.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7585182.stm

 

Seven of the world's leading industrialised nations have jointly condemned Russia's decision to recognise Georgia's breakaway regions.


Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the US and UK said Moscow's recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia violated Georgia's integrity and sovereignty.
Earlier, the UK's foreign secretary said Western countries should re-examine their relations with Russia.
David Miliband also warned Russia not to start a new Cold War.
Speaking during a visit to Ukraine, Mr Miliband said Moscow had not reconciled itself with the new map of the region and that the West should should look at ways to reduce its dependence on Russian oil and gas.

 

GEORGIA Caucasus - GEORGIAs MAP GEORGIAN MAP

 

 

 

www.SOSGeorgia.org

www.apsny.ge (facts/news in russian)

http://pik.tv/ru/shows

 

"georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian

 

5 Days Of War (original title 5 Days Of August) is a Hollywood film about the Russia-Georgia conflict which turned into the 2008 South Ossetia war in August 2008. Director and co-producer of this project is the Finnish-American film direct ... or and producer Renny Harlin. Filming started in October 2009, in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. After the request of Film Producers, the Georgian Military provided military equipment. Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili allowed use of his Presidential residence for filming. Andy García plays the role of Saakashvili; Emmanuelle Chriqui plays Tatia, a young Georgian girl; Rupert Friend plays Thomas Anders, an American reporter; and Johnathon Schaech plays Rezo Avaliani, a young Georgian officer. In addition, Val Kilmer plays a Dutch journalist working in Georgia

 

 

5 DAYS OF WAR on DVD:

 

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Five-Days-War-Rupert-Friend/dp/B004KKX1BQ






COUNTRY INFO:



Encyclopedia Britannica about Georgia/Sakartvelo:

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44318/Georgia

History > Origins of the Georgian nation:

"...Early in the 1st millennium BC, the ancestors of the Georgian nation emerge in the annals of Assyria and, later, of Urartu. Among these were the Diauhi (Diaeni) nation, ancestors of the Taokhoi, who later domiciled in the southwestern Georgian province of Tao, and the Kulkha, forerunners of the Colchians, who held sway over large territories at the eastern end of the Black Sea. The fabled wealth of Colchis became known quite early to the Greeks and found symbolic expression in the legend of Medea and the Golden Fleece...
In Greek mythology Colchis was the home of Medea and the destination of the Argonauts, a land of fabulous wealth and the domain of sorcery..."

 

Like most native Caucasian peoples , the Georgians do not fit into any of the main ethnic categories of Europe or Asia. The Georgian language , the most pervasive of the South Caucasian languages , is neither Indo-European, Turkic nor Semitic . The present day Georgian or Kartvelian nation is thought to have resulted from the fusion of aboriginal, autochthonous -inhabitants with immigrants who infiltrated into South Caucasus from the direction of Anatolia in remote antiquity.



- Encyclopedia Britannica ( http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44320/Georgia )

 

GEORGIAN FLAG




History of Georgia

Two early Georgian kingdoms of late antiquity, known to ancient Greeks
and Romans as Iberia in the east of the country and Colchis
in the west, were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity
(in 337 AD, or in 319 AD as recent research suggests.). Ancient Greeks (Strabo,
Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.
) and Romans (Titus Livius, Cornelius Tacitus,
etc.) referred to early eastern Georgians as Iberians (Iberoi in some
Greek sources) and western Georgians as Colchians.

Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi their land Sakartvelo
, and their language Kartuli
. According to legend the ancestor of the
Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great grandson of the Biblical Japheth. The
terms Georgia and Georgians appeared in Western Europe in numerous medieval
annals.The name has been mistakenly supposed to be derived from the country's
patron St. George.Some also believed that Georgia was so named by the Greeks
on account of its agricultural resources, since "Georgia" means "farming"
in Greek. However, the true origin of the name Georgia is still disputed.


In Greek Mythology, Colchis was the location of the Golden
Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts in Apollonius Rhodius' epic
tale Argonautica.
The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into
the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold
dust from rivers. Known to its natives as Egrisi or Lazica, Colchis often saw
battles between the rival powers of Persia and the Byzantine Empire, both of
which managed to conquer Western Georgia from time to time. As a result, those
Kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages.
This made it easy for Arabs to conquer Georgia in the 7th century. The rebellious
regions were liberated and united into a unified Georgian Kingdom at the beginning
of the 11th century. Starting in the 12th century AD, the rule of Georgia extended
over a significant part of the Southern Caucasus, including the northeastern
parts and almost the entire northern coast of what is now Turkey.



The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries.
This period has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance.

---

David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He was one of the most productive British scholars who specialized in Georgian, Armenian and ancient Bulgarian history.

David M. Lang was educated at Monkton Combe and St John’s College, Cambridge where he was a Major Scholar and later held a Fellowship. In his military career he was an officer in Iran during the Second World War. He was appointed in 1944 as acting Vice-Consul in Tabriz, Iran, where he acquainted himself with the city's Armenian population. In 1949 he was the member of staff for the School of Oriental and African Studies at University of London. He began as Lecturer in Georgian language, then as Reader and in 1964 he became Professor of Caucasian Studies. In 1953 he held a Senior Fellowship at the Russian Institute of Columbia University and in 1965 he was a visiting Professor in Caucasian Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. Between 1962 and 1964 he was Honorary Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society of London. He visited the Soviet republic of Armenia three times during the 1960s and 1970s.

For a long time, he directed the Caucasian Studies Department at the University of London, and lectured in Caucasian languages and history at Cambridge and various universities around the world

 

READ DAVID MARSHALL LANG's BOOK: "The Georgians ( The Georgians (Ancient peoples and places) "

 


st. Queen Tamar of Georgia = Georgia's Golden Age !



Tamar (Georgian: ??????, also transliterated as T'amar, Thamar or Tamari) (c. 1160 – 18 January 1213), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was Queen Regnant of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. (Although she was a woman, she is always mentioned in Georgian history as a King Tamar) The first woman to rule Georgia in her own right, Tamar presided over the "Golden age" of the medieval Georgian monarchy.

Tamar was proclaimed heir apparent and co-ruler by her reigning father George III in 1178, but she faced significant opposition from the aristocracy upon her ascension to full ruling powers after George's death. Nevertheless, Tamar was successful in neutralizing this opposition and embarked on an energetic foreign policy aided by the downfall of the rival powers of the Seljuqids and Byzantium. Supported by a powerful military élite, Tamar was able to build on the successes of her predecessors to consolidate an empire which dominated the Caucasus until its collapse under the Mongol attacks within two decades after Tamar's death.

Tamar's association with this period of political and cultural revival, combined with her role as a female ruler, has led to her idealization and Romantization. She remains an important symbol in Georgian popular culture and has also been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

MORE INFO:


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/581787/Tamara



CULTURE OF GEORGIA/Sakartvelo (Music,Art,Science,Famous Georgians
etc):



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Georgia


In the 330s Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia. This marked the beginning
of vigorous development of arts and letters. Members of the high society of Kartli and Egrisi
were well acquainted with the literature and philosophy of the East and the West. Among them
were eminent scholars-philosophers: Peter the Iberian and loané the Laz (5th cent.). Centers of
culture and enlightenment also existed in Georgia, some being of international significance. In
the 4th century a school of rhetoric and philosophy functioned not far from the town of Phasis
(modern Poti). Along with representatives of the local nobility students from abroad were also
taught at the school:
It was the alma mater of the famous Greek philosopher and rhetorician
Themistius who says that his father Eugenius had also learned wisdom at that school.


Joane Petrizi
(12th century) - the most significant Georgian medieval
philosopher - devoted intensive work to neo-Platonic philosophy:


http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/joane-petrizi/

 

The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. One of the most acclaimed Italian film directors, Federico Fellini, was an admirer of the Georgian film:

“ Georgian film is a completely unique phenomenon, vivid, philosophically inspiring, very wise, childlike. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it (my crying) is not an easy thing."

 

VISIT:

http://www.GeorgianFilm.ge/

 


SPORTS IN GEORGIA:

Historically, Georgia has been famous for its physical education; it is known that the Romans were fascinated with Georgians' physical qualities after seeing the training techniques of ancient Iberia.
Among the most popular sports in Georgia are association football, basketball, rugby union, wrestling, and weightlifting. Other famous sports in 19th century Georgia were horse polo and lelo, a traditional Georgian game later replaced by rugby union:

 

 


Lelo or lelo burti (meaning literally in Georgian "Field Ball") is a Georgian folk sport, which is a full contact ball game, and very similar to rugby. In fact, even within Georgian rugby union terminology, the word lelo is used to mean a try, and the popularity of rugby union in Georgia has also been attributed to it.

Traditional varieties

Lelo was played in Georgia from ancient times and is still played on occasions in rural areas. A field ("Lelo") would be selected and
"In earlier times, the lelo teams would consist of a few dozen players each, and the field would sometimes have to be crossed by a stream, which the players would have to ford in pursuit of the ball."
Sometimes the playing field was between two water courses. The two teams, usually consisting of the male population of neighbouring villages, would face each other. The number of players from each side was not set traditionally, but included any able men each village could summon. A large, heavy ball was placed in the middle of the field and the goal of the game was to carry it over the river to the "half" of the opposing side.
"The game took place over a wide area sometimes stretching for several kilometres on very rough ground. The contestants would have to contend with spurs, hills, valleys, woods. cascading streams and marshes. Their task was to get a ball into a certain place, say, over the settlement boundary or to the foot of the mountain. Any means necessary could be employed to drive the ball forward — feet or hands. Sometimes they would play the game on horseback."

Standardised version

During the Soviet Period, lelo became standardised:
"Nowadays lelo is played according to strictly defined rules on a proper pitch of 90-135 m in length and 60-90m in width. The match ball is round and made of leather, filled with grass, horsehair or sheep's wool. It weighs 2.5 kg and is 85-90 cm long."[4]
This standardised version features fifteen-a-side teams (as per rugby union), and forward passing (in contrast to rugby football).Players are allowed to knock the ball out of opponents' hands, but unlike American football the blocking of opponents without the ball is not allowed. The pushing and tripping (or hacking) of opponents is also disallowed, and players are not allowed to jump on them. The object is to get the ball into the goal mouth, which is known as a mak.
Players are also only allowed to carry the ball for five seconds before passing. The game consists of two halves of thirty minutes, with a ten minute interval.

Georgia: the "Lelos"

The Lelos (as they are nicknamed) are the national rugby union team of Georgia. One standard cheer of Georgian rugby union fans is Lelo, Lelo, Sakartvelo (Try, Try, Georgia).

 

Wrestling

Wrestling remains a historically important sport of Georgia and some historians think that the Greco-Roman style of wrestling incorporates many Georgian elements. Within Georgia, one of the most popularized styles of wrestling is the Kakhetian style. However, there have been a number of other styles that are not as widely used today. For example, the Khevsureti region of Georgia has three different styles of wrestling.






MODERN GEORGIA:

 

The Georgian Academy of Sciences unites the scientific-research institutions
of the Republic where the fundamental research in almost all main fields of
science is carried out. The Academy coordinates scientific research in Georgia
and develops relationship with the academies of foreign countries and other
scientific centers.



At present there are 65 academicians and 64 corresponding members working at
the Academy. The Georgian Academy of Sciences develops rich national scientific
traditions which the Georgian nation created in the course of centuries. It
is a well known fact that many centuries ago outstanding Georgian scholars made
brilliant translations and created original works in educational and scientific
centers well known in their times, such as the school of philosophy and rhetoric
in Colchis(Western Georgia) (4th c), the centers of spiritual culture in Palestine (5th
c.), Syria (6th c.), Greece (10th - 15th c.c.) and Bulgaria (11th c.) as well
academies of Gelati and Ikalto (11th-12th c.c.) in Georgia.

http://www.science.org.ge/english.html

http://www.acnet.ge/index.html



Georgia is One of the birthplaces of Astronomy:



- Ancient artifacts found show astronomical and astrological signs inc. Zodiac
signs

- Zorats Kerer stonehenge, the first astronomical observatory, Ughtasar petroglyphs
are all approx. 7000 - 9000 years old.


Steel and Ironmongery:


- Georgian tribe Chalybi were first to discover and master steel and
iron.( In Greek steel is called: Chalybas)


Caucasus/Georgia is the birthplace of winemaking:


- Out of 2000 grape varieties, 500 are Georgian

- Indo-European word for wine (vino, wein etc) derives from Georgian 'Ghvino'.

- World's oldest wine grape seed, 7000 year old wine vessel, ancient artifacts
with wine motifs etc have been found in Georgia.




Georgian MUSIC:


Georgian national music is characterized by Polyphony, which distinguishes
it from its neighbors like Armenia. Georgian folk remains vibrant across
the country, while modern rock and pop also exists.



Georgian folk songs are often centered around feasts, where songs and toasts
to God, long life and other topics. Traditional feast songs include "Zamtari",
which is about winter and is sung to commemorate ancestors, and "Mravalzhamier",
a joyous hymn. Work songs are also widespread. The "Orovela", for example, is
a type of work song found in eastern Georgia with Armenian characteristics such
as a lack of polyphony.



Complex polyphony is distinctively Georgian, usually featuring a primarily
melody sung by the middle voice with supporting vocals often producing countermelodies.
Choirs are generally entirely male, though some female groups also exist; mixed-gender
choirs are rare. Kakheti in eastern Georgia has the most famous polyphonic vocal
traditions.


The drinking song "Chakrulo", featuring typically Kakhetian
voices, two intertwined soloists with dissonance, tensions and releases, was
chosen to accompany the Voyager spacecraft in 1977.
Dissonance is prominent
in the west, in Mingrelia and Guria, which also features, high pitches and outrageous,
yodelling-like vocals called krimanchuli. Svaneti's traditions
are perhaps the oldest and most traditional due to the region's isolation. Svan
harmonies are irregular and angular, and the middle voice leads two supporting
vocals, all with a narrow range. The 20th century has seen professional choirs
achieve renown in Georgia, especially Anzor Erkomaishvili's Rustavi Choir.



Georgia is home to a form of urban music with sentimental, lovelorn lyrics,
as well as a more rough and crude urban music featuring clarinets, doli and
duduks.





"Georgian Legend"
- The Best Folk/Music/Dance show in the
world !
Georgian Folk Dancing company were the only ones ever of its kind to perform at the great La Scala Milan. It beat all records having 3 encours and 14 curtian lifts:




http://georgianlegend.com

 

+

TRADITIONAL POLYPHONY CENTER

...Polyphony is one of the less comprehended phenomenon of the musical thinking. The interest in making research on it has been significantly increased over the last period. The map presented on this page indicates the areas all over the world where the polyphonic music has been spread:

http://www.polyphony.ge/?lng=eng

Over its three thousand years of history , Georgia allocated on the border line of Asia and Europe has developed its unique polyphonic musical culture.
Georgians have enriched the treasury of the world by its special polyphonic musical folklore and church music. Since the ancient times three-part singing has been the norm of Georgian musical thinking. Everybody who has ever had a touch with Georgian polyphonic forms recognizes their diversity and excellence.






Georgian Theatre has a long history;
it's oldest national form was the
"Sakhioba" (extant from the 3rd century BC to the 17th century
AD). The Georgian National Theatre was founded in 1791 in Tbilisi, by the writer,
dramatist and diplomat Giorgi Avalishvili (1769-1850). Its leading actors
were Dimitri Aleksi-Meskhishvili, David Machabeli, David Bagrationi, Dimitri
Cholokashvili and others.



Robert Sturua (born July 31, 1938) is a Georgian theater director, who
gained international acclaim for his original interpretation of the works of
Brecht, Shakespeare, Chekhov. He is based at the Shota Rustaveli
Dramatic Theater in Tbilisi, and has staged productions throghout the world.



More About Robert Sturua: http://www.rustavelitheatre.ge/dacheraze_eng.php?dasi_id=74

EASTERN PROMOTION:

Offering music since 1998,  Eastern Promotion has promoted in the Caucasus region notable and highly acclaimed musicians including Ray Charles, James Brown,  George Benson, Al Jarreau, Bobby McFerrin, Maceo Parker, The Manhattan Transfer, Take 6, Roy Ayers, Coolio, John McLaughlin,  Joe Zawinul, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Garry Barton, Jamiroquai, Shakira, Joe Cocker and others.  

The company is owned by five enthusiasts and music aficionados who are dedicated to promoting world class music in the region, as well as promoting the best Georgian music and artists overseas.   From private corporate events to festivals and large-scale concert, we provide exceptional organizational skills and services.  In addition, we proudly maintain strong relations with most leading booking agencies worldwide.

Our experience dates back to the USSR's first annual Tbilisi Jazz Festival in 1978 and the Rock Festival of 1980, both of which were managed and organized by several of our members.  Today Eastern Promotion is the largest organizer of jazz festivals in the countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. 

For almost a decade we have established and maintained a reputation as one of the most respected agencies for jazz, blues and other musical genres in the world.  

http://www.easternpromotion.com/about.html


FAMOUS GEORGIANS:


http://www.geocities.com/famousgeorgians1/index.html



George Balanchine (original name: Georgy Melitonovich Balanchivadze)
was an American ballet choreographer of Georgian descent. Balanchine
is most influential choreographer of classical ballet in the United States
in the 20th century. His works, characterized by a cool neoclassicism, include
The Nutcracker (1954) and Don Quixote (1965), both pieces choreographed for
the New York City Ballet, of which he was a founder (1948).



His work formed a bridge between classical and modern ballet.



The George Balanchine Foundation:


http://balanchine.org/01/index.html


Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin (Gedeanishvili)
- major Russian nationalist
Composer of the 19th century. He was also a scientist notable for his research
on aldehydes.

Borodin's father was a Georgian prince (Luka Semyonovich Gedeanishvili) . As
a boy he received a good education, including piano lessons, but he was eventually
to earn a doctorate in medicine at the Medico&150;Surgical Academy, the later
home to Ivan Pavlov, and to pursue a career in chemistry (just as his comrade
Cesar Cui would do in the field of military fortifications). As a result of
his work in chemistry and difficulties in his home-life, Borodin was not as
prolific in writing music as many of his contemporaries were -- hence his own
description of himself as a "Sunday composer." He died during a festive
ball, where he was participating with much vigor; he suddenly collapsed from
heart failure. He was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery,
in St. Petersburg, Russia.

read more:

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9080770/Aleksandr-Borodin



Alexander Toradze



The Toradze studio have received
high praise for their contributions to the piano world, and has developed into
a worldwide touring ensemble that has gathered critical acclaim on an international
level. In the recent season the Studio appeared in Salzburg, New York, Rome,
Florence, Venice, Ravenna, Lisbon, Ruhr Festival, among others. Mr. Toradze
continuously appears with worlds leading orchestras such as Berlin Philharmonic,
Kirov Orchestra, La Scala Philharmonic, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Bayerische
Rundfunk Orchester, St. Petersburg Philharmonic, Orchestre National de France,
City of Birmingham Symphony, London's Symphony, Philharmonic and Philharmonia
Orchestras, NHK in Japan, Czech, Hungarian, Israel, Rotterdam, Warsaw Philharmonics,
the radio orchestras in Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland and Italy.



Columbia Artists Management about Toradze:



http://www.cami.com/?webid=503

 

Dimitri Uznadze


Dimitri Uznadze (დიმიტრი უზნაძე in Georgian. December 2, 1886 - October 9, 1950) was a famous Georgian psychologist, philosopher and public benefactor, founder of the Georgian scientific school of Psychology, co-founder of the Tbilisi State University (TSU), Academician and co-founder of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Meritorious Science Worker of Georgia, Dr.Sci., Professor.

Life and works
Dimitri Uznadze was born in 1886, in small village Sakara (Western Georgia). In 1904 he graduated from the Georgian Gymnasium in Kutaisi. In 1909 Uznadze graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy of the Leipzig University (Germany). In 1910 he received PhD degree at the University of Wittenberg (Halle, Germany).

In 1910-1917 he was teacher of world history of the Kutaisi Georgian Gymnasium.

In 1918 Uznadze co-founded the Tbilisi State University (TSU). Other founders of this University were outstanding Georgian scientists Ivane Javakhishvili, Ekvtime Takaishvili, Shalva Nutsubidze, Akaki Shanidze, Giorgi Akhvlediani, Andria Razmadze, Iosif Kipshidze, Petre Melikishvili, etc.

In 1918 - 1950 Uznadze was Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology of TSU. In 1935 he received Dr.Sci. degree in Psychology (full doctor).

In 1941 he co-founded the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS). In 1941 - 1950 he was first Director of the Institute of Psychology of the GAS (now the Uznadze Institute of Psychology).

In 1946 Uznadze received title of Meritorious Science Worker of Georgia.

Main fields of scientific activity of Dimitri Uznadze were: philosophy, history of philosophy, theory of upbringing, experimental pedagogics, etc. He was also author of well-known Theory of Attitude and Set and founder of Georgian school of the psychology of pedagogics. Uznadze's main scientific works are: "Wladimir Solowjow: seine Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik" (a monograph, in German, Halle, 1910); "Henri Bergson" (a monograph, in Russian, Tbilisi, 1923); "Untersuchungen zur Psychologie der Einstellung" ("Acta Psychologica", Vol.IV, No.3, 1939, in German); "The Psychology of Set" (a monograph, in English, New York, 1966); "Psychological Investigations" (In Russian, English summary, Moscow, 1966).

Uznadze died on October 9, 1950, in Tbilisi. He is buried in the garden of the Tbilisi State University.

 




Katie Melua




Ketevan "Katie" Melua (born 16 September 1984) is a British-Georgian
singer, songwriter and musician.



She was born in the country of Georgia, but moved to Northern Ireland
at the age of eight and then relocated to England at the age of 14. Melua is
signed to the small Dramatico record label, under the management of songwriter
Mike Batt, and made her musical debut in 2003.



In 2006, she was the United Kingdom's biggest-selling female artist and
Europe's highest selling European female artist !!!


http://www.katiemelua.com

--------

 

Nikolai Tsiskaridze

Principal Dancer

http://www.bolshoi.ru/en/theatre/ballet_troupe/soloists/detail.php?act26=info&id26=12

BIOGRAPHY
Born in Tbilisi where he began to study dance at Tbilisi Ballet School. In 1992, he completed his studies at the Moscow Choreographic College of (Pyotr Pestov's class) and joined the Bolshoi Theatre where, very soon, he was noticed by Yury Grigorovich and began to receive solo parts. In 1996, he completed his studies at the pedagogical faculty of the Institute of Choreography (today College and Institute have been amalgamated into the Moscow Choreographic Academy). He rehearsed with, among others, Galina Ulanova and Marina Semyonova. Tsiskaridz's teacher-repetiteur is Nikolai Fadeyechev.

Main Repertory

1993
Don Juan ( Love for Love . Music by Tikhon Khrennikov. Vera Boccadoro production)
French Doll ( Nutcracker . Yuri Grigorovich production)
Prince Fortune ( The Sleeping Beauty . Yuri Grigorovich production)

1994
Variety show compere ( The Golden Age . Music by Dmitry Shostakovich. Production by Yuri Grigorovich)

1995
The Nutcracker-Prince ( Nutcracker )
Mercutio ( Romeo and Juliet. Yuri Grigorovich production)
Little Count Cherry ( Cipollino . Music by Karen Khachaturyan. Genrikh Mayorov production)
James ( La Sylphide. Choreography by August Bournonville)
Rotbart  ( Swan Lake. Choreography by Marius Petipa, Lev Ivanov, Alexander Gorsky. Yuri Grigorovich production )
The Bronze Idol ( La Bayadere. Yuri Grigorovich production)
Title role ( Paganini to the music by Sergei Rakhmanonov. Choreography by Leonid Lavrovsky)
Mercutio, Troubadour ( Romeo and Juliet. Choreography by Leonid Lavrovsky)
Soloist  ( Chopiniana )

1996
Ferkhad ( A Legend of Love . Music by Arif Melikov. Yuri Grigorovich production)
The King ( Swan Lake. Vladimir Vasiliev production) - creator of the role
Blue Bird, Prince Desire ( The Sleeping Beauty )
Solor ( La Bayadere. Yuri Grigorovich production)

1997
Count Albrecht 
( Giselle. Vladimir Vasiliev production)

1998
Title role ( Le specter de la rose . Choreography by Mikhail Fokin)
Jean de Brienne ( Raimonda. Yuri Grigorovich production)

1999
Soloist Part 3 ( Symphony in C )  - creator of the role at Bolshoi Theatre

2000
Lord Wilson/Taor ( La Fille du Pharaon. Pierre Lacotte production after Marius Petipa)

2001
The Evil Genius - creation
, Prince Siegfried ( Swan Lake. Yuri Grigorovich production)
Hermann  ( La Dame de Pique to music by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Rolan Petit production) - creator of the role 

2003
Quasimodo ( Notre-Dame de Paris. Rolan Petit production) - creator of the role at Bolshoi Theatre

2004
Evil Fairy Carabosse ( The Sleeping Beauty )
Ballet Dancer ( The Bright Stream . Music by Dmitry Shostakovich. Alexei Ratmansky production) 
Theseus/Oberon ( A Midnight's Summer Dream. John Neumeier production) - creator of the role at Bolshoi Theatre

2007
Conrad ( Le Corsaire . Production and new choreography by Alexei Ratmansky and Yuri Burlaka after Marius Petipa)
Teacher  (Georges Delerue's The Lesson ; choreography by Flemming Flindt)

2010
Lucien d'Hervilly ( Paquita . Staging and new choreographic version by Yuri Burlaka)

Tours

With the Maryinsky Ballet Company, he danced the following roles: in 1997, James ( La Sylphide); in 2001, Ferkhad ( Legend of Love ) and the solo part in Rubies ; in 2002, the Slave in Scheherazade to music by Rimsky-Korsakov (choreography - Mikhail Fokine); in 2003, Solor in the ‘authentic' version of La Bayadere (a reconstruction of the Petipa ballet by Sergei Vikharev).
In 2001, Tsiskaridze made his Paris National Opera debut in the part of Solor in La Bayadere (Rudolph Nureyev version).
In 2003, he danced the part of the Youth in Roland Petit'squo; Le Jeune homme et la mort with the Asami Maki Ballet Company (at Tokyo's New National Theatre).
In 2002, he danced at a gala-concert in memory of Rudoph Nureyev at La Scala (partner - Svetlana Zakharova).
In the same year, he participated in the gala-concert, forming part of the opening ceremony for the new theatre in the city of Apollo (USA). His partner was Maria Aleksandrova.
He dances the role of Death in Gerard Presgurvic's Romeo and Juliet, the musical, which was premiered in 2004 at Moscow's
Operetta Theatre.
In 2005, at the Maryinsky Festival, held at the Maryinsky Theatre, he danced Chevalier des Grieux in Manon and, also at the Maryinsky Theatre, at the Stars of the White Nights Festival, he made his debut in William Forsythe's ballet In the middle, somewhat elevated , to music by Thom Willems.
In 2005, at the State Kremlin Palace, he danced the lead in Wayne Eagling's ballet The Blue God to music by Scriabin (an Andris Liepa project to resurrect the ballets of the Diaghilev Saisons Russes).

Awards

In 1992, he was included among the scholarship-holders of the New Names program.
In 1995, he was awarded the Ballet magazine Soul of Dance prize ( Up-and-Coming-Star nomination) and won 2 nd prize at the International Competition of Ballet Dancers in Osaka.
In 1997, he won the 1 st prize at the International Competition of Ballet Dancers  in Moscow and was awarded the title of Merited Artist of the Russian Federation .
In 1999, he won the Benois de la danse International Dance Association prize for his interpretation of the role of Jean de Brienne ( Raymonda ) and the Golden Mask National Theatre prize for his performance of the solo parts in Symphony in C and Agon (1998/99 season).
In 2001, Nikolai Tsiskaridze was awarded the title of People's Artist of the Russian Federation and the State Prize of Russia for his interpretation of several roles in the classical repertoire.
In 2000, he was voted Best Dancer of the Year by the Italian Danza & Danza journal.
In 2003, he was winner of the Triumph prize, and was again awarded the Golden Mask prize and the State Prize of Russia (both for his performance as Hermann in Roland Petit's La Dame de Pique ). He was also awarded the Order of Honor of the Republic of Georgia.
In 2006, he was awarded the Order of Arts and Literature (France).

 

---

Prince Petr Bagration

http://www.russiatoday.com/Russia_Now/Russiapedia/BPetr_Bagration.html

Prince Petr Ivanovich Bagration (1765 – 1812) was among the most outstanding military leaders of the Russian Empire. A disciple of the legendary Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov, he was a symbol of Russian martial triumphs. Only a few contemporary commanders were as popular as General Peter Bagration. His military career was astonishing. During the thirty years of his army service, Bagration fought in 20 campaigns and almost 150 battles and minor skirmishs, successfully commanding at all unit levels.

Read more

Bagration descended from an ancient Georgian royal dynasty of Bagrations (Bagrationi in Georgian) coming from the Tao-Klarjeti region in the south-west Georgia. The Bagrationi actually governed Georgia for almost 900 years. Among Peter's ancestors one could find many monarchs and prominent statesmen. For example: the greatest of Georgian kings, David IV the Builder, who liberated the country from the Turk-Seljuks in 1121; legendary Empress Tamar, whose reign was called ‘the Golden Century' in Georgian history; King George VI the Brilliant, who liberated Georgia from the Mongols in the 1330s and restored Georgian monasteries in the Holy Land; Kings George VII, Bagrat V, Luarsab, Simon, and others, and, last but not least (as some genealogists believe), the great nomadic conqueror Timur (Tamerlan) who invaded Georgia eight times within 14 years in the XIVth century.

Unfortunately, little information is available about the early period of Bagration's life. was born in 1765 in Kizlyar (Dagestan, Northern Caucasus). His father, Ivan Bagrationi was a Colonel in the Russian army, but despite a great number of royal ancestors, the family didn't have any powerful patrons or money. Peter later recalled that his parents often told him stories of his ancestors and their heroic battles. Perhaps for this reason, he showed great interest in and a love for a military career. “With the milk of my mother, I have poured in myself a spirit of dash bravery,” Peter Bagration wrote later. In 1782, at the age of 17 he enlisted as a sergeant in the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment and thus began a military career spanning almost 30 years. He served for some years in the Caucasus, participating in the campaigns of 1783, 1784, 1785, and 1786. Having shown himself as a brave and courageous soldier, he prepared for the hardships of military life. Later he participated in the siege of Turkish fortress Ochakov (1788), and in the Polish campaign of 1794, being involved in the capture of Warsaw. He hadn't got any academic education and learned mainly from his experience in the field, consecutively passing all ranks from sergeant up to captain (1792), then second major, premier-major and lieutenant-colonel (1794). In 1798, he was promoted to colonel and by the next year he was a major-general. His merits were recognized by legendary Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov, whom he accompanied in the glorious Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799, winning particular distinction with the swift capture of the town of Brescia. Suvorov liked Bagration's ferocious battlefield style and grew fond of him, familiarly calling him ‘Prince Peter' (‘Knyaz Pyotra' as he pronounced) and always showed his respect and trust. Bagration was famed for remaining cool-headed in the most dangerous situations and for always taking calm, measured decisions; at the same time showing great personal bravery.

In the campaign against Napoleon in 1805 Bagration's achievements appeared even more brilliant. With a small rearguard he successfully resisted the repeated attacks of French forces outnumbering his own five-fold (Battle of Hollabrunn, November 16 1805), and though half his men fell, the retreat of the main army under Kutuzov was there by secured. At the famous battle at Austerlitz (December 2 1805) Bagration fought against the left wing of the French army commanded by Murat and Lannes. At the battles of Eylau (February 7 1807), Heilsberg (June 11 1807) and Friedland (June 14 1807) he fought with the most resolute and stubborn courage. For his actions at Friedland, Bagration was awarded a golden sword decorated with diamonds, with the inscription ‘For bravery'.

During the Russo-Swedish War of 1808, he commanded the 21st Division and successfully occupied southwestern Finland, including Abo. He defeated the Swedish landing near Abo in September 1808, and on March 15 1809 led the daring march across the frozen Gulf of Bothnia to occupy the Åland Islands which precipitated the coup d'etat in Stockholm.

The same year he was unexpectedly sent to a Russian army in Moldavia operating against Turkey. Some historians believe that this rapid transfer from Finland, where the war had just ended, to Moldavia, where it would last without results for three years, was, in effect, a sort of reprimand. The Royal Court in St. Petersburg did not wish to see him near the capital due to his alleged affair with the grand princess Ekaterina Pavlovna (a favourite sister of Emperor Alexander I), who was half as young as Bagration (she was born in 1788). As a result the princess was forced to marry Prince George of Oldenburg in April 1809, while Bagration after being promoted to a rank of General of Infantry was appointed deputy to Commander-in-Chief General Prozorovsky on July 13 1809. After Prozorovsky's death on August 21, he led the army and immediately launched an offensive southward, capturing the fortresses of Macin, Constanta, and Girsov and reaching Cavarna and Bazardjik. On September 16 1809, Bagration defeated the Turks at Rassevat and on September 22 besieged Silistra, forcing the Grand Vizier Yussuf to cancel his invasion of Serbia and Wallachia. Bagration halted a superior Turkish army at Tataritsa on October 22, but had to lift the siege of Silistra due to the lack of supplies and ammunition. He succeeded in seizing the strongholds of Ismail and Braila in late 1809. However, in March 1810 he resigned due to a disagreement with the Emperor on the overall strategy and for over a year he traveled in Austria and Russia arranging his private affairs.

During the 1812 Patriotic War Bagration commanded the 2nd Western Army which successfully eluded Napoleon's enveloping maneuvers and achieved minor victories at Mir and Romanovo. He outmaneuvered French Marshal Nicholas Davout at Moghilev and joined, despite extremely tense relations, with the other Russian army under Mikhail Barclay de Tolly at Smolensk on August 3. He was able to perceive Napoleon's plans and successfully defended Smolensk on August 15-16. His bitter opposition to the retreat conceding land for time finally led to the dismissal of Barclay de Tolly and the appointment of Mikhail Kutuzov as a Commander-in-Chief instead. On September 7, Bagration commanded the Russian left flank at the main battle at Borodino and fiercely defended the earthwork fortifications (later called ‘Bagration's fleches') against the French attacks. The French twice took control of the fleches and twice were driven away. During the second attack by the enemy, Bagration personally led his troops to the counter-attack and was wounded (the fourth time in his military career) by a shell splinter to his left leg. The wound became infected and he died on September 24, 1812 in the village of Simy (Vladimir region). He was buried at a local church but in August 1839 his remains were transferred to the Borodino battlefield and remain there to this day (although the grave had been blown up in World War II, it has since been restored).

Being of average height, thin, with wavy brunette hair, Bagration had the typical Georgian hooked nose that gave way to a number of witticisms and jokes. Once, his aide-de-camps Denis Davydov told him that an enemy is very close – already ‘on their nose'. Bagration calmly replied. ‘On whose nose? If mine, we have enough time to have a breakfast. If yours, we have to hurry!' He wasn't handsome, but the glory and reputation of Suvorov's disciple made a strong impression. Soldiers called him ‘The Eagle,' while among the general population he was known as ‘Bog-rati-on' (‘Bog [the God]-rati [army]-on [he is]' – The God of the Army.').

Bagration's family life, contrary to his career, was a complete failure. He was married to Yekaterina Pavlovna Skavronskaya, an outstanding beauty and a-lady-in-waiting of Empress Maria (the wife of Pavel I) in 1800. She became involved with Peter after his return from Italy and Switzerland, and Emperor Paul I, upon hearing about their relations, forced them to marry (he had a hobby of arranging weddings for his generals and courtiers). None of the two had serious feelings for another and the marriage proved to be a disaster. Catherine soon fled and spent most of time traveling throughout Europe. She finally settled in Vienna, where she was believed to act as a female «007» – a secret Russian agent both during the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards. She became a mistress to Austrian chancellor Clemens Metternich (he called her th Naked Angel) and gave birth to his daughter Clementine, whom Bagration, under pressure of Alexander I, declared to be his own (Alexander wanted to employ her as leverage for influence on Austrian foreign policy). Furthermore, Peter paid thousands of roubles for debts Catherine had accumulated from living in Vienna. It was not certain if it ruined his marriage or not, but Bagration was renowned for being a heavy gambler. Once he owed more than 80,000 roubles (an exorbitant sum in early XIXth century, when the price of a well-bred horse hardly exceeded 150 roubles) and was forced to sell his estates to cover the debts.

Bagration's name was widely known not only in Russia, but also well beyond its boundaries. Many outstanding military figures of Western Europe of that time regarded his talent highly. In the opinion of Polish General Kolachkovsky, one of the participants of 1812 campaign, Bagration ‘belonged to a number of the most famous military leaders of his time' and might be put in line with Napoleon, Suvorov, Kutuzov, Ney, Davout and many others. Napoleon himself considered Bagration to be the best general in the Russian army.

Over 130 years later Joseph Stalin chose Bagration as the name of the Soviet Union's summer 1944 offensive operation in Byelorussia which was extremely successful and shattered the military power of Nazi Germany.




Orthodox Christians





..The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the world's most ancient


Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew...

 

St Andrew preached Gospel together with St Simon of Canaan in western Georgia. The last was buried in Komani Village, Georgia. Another Apostle St Matthias was also buried in Georgia. He preached in south-western part of the country and was buried in Gonio, nearby Batumi. According to the oldest scripts holy Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus also visited East Georgia and preached Gospel there.

The Georgian Church has been founded by the Holy Apostles. Their journeys and preaches are scripted in the Georgian Chronicles, also by Greek and Latin authors, for instance Origuene (II-III cc), Bishop Dorotheus of Tire (IV c), Bishop Epiphan of Cyprus (IV c), Nikita of Paphlagon (IX c), Ecumen (X c), etc.

Holy Apostles preaches left a significant path. Existence of Christian communities and churches are proved by archaeological materials dated back to I-III cc. St Ireneous of Lyon mentions Iberians, i.e. Georgians, among Christians in II century.

It was in that period, during the reign of King Mirian and Queen Nana (IV century), that Christianity was announced state religion in East Georgia thanks to the efforts of St Nino, Equal-to-the-Apostles. This marked a new stage in the history of the country. The bishop, priests, and deacons sent by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine the Great baptized the people and blessed local clergy. St Nino of Capadoccia was a close relative of St George. According to the advice of St Nino the foundation of the first church of the Twelve Apostles, Svetitskhoveli, where the Mantle of the Prophet Elijah and the Chiton of Christ were buried, was laid there. Svetitskhoveli Patriarchate Cathedral is the spiritual centre of Georgia. The Cathedral manifests immortality of our nation and culture.

After official adoption of Christianity, Emperor Constantine and Queen Elena sent a piece of the Holy Cross, and the board onto which the Savior stood while crucifixion, and two nails, and the Savior's icon.

The Georgian Church dates baptizing of the Georgians and preaching Gospel to our land back to 326 AD. The fact is confirmed by historian Sozomone of Salaman (V century). According to “The Church History” by Sozomone of Salaman, the Georgians were officially baptizing after the First World Ecclesiastic Council in Nicaea (325 AD).        

Preaching Christianity and establishing the Church in early IV century is especially true of West Georgia, which is attested by the presence of Stratophilous, Bishop of Bichvinta, at the First World Ecclesiastic Council in Nicaea. Since then Georgia and the Georgian Orthodox Church have always firmly and piously kept Orthodox canons. VI century Byzantine historian Prokofi of Caesarea writes, “Iberians are Christians keeping the rules better than any other nations”.

Since official adoption of Christianity, and even before, the Georgian people had always fought against foreign invaders. Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and Ottomans aimed to invade and destroy the country and its Christian faith. The Georgian people could keep and preserve its statehood and Orthodox faith. Fighting for state independence was equal to protecting Orthodoxy for many centuries. Great many clergy as well as civilians sacrificed their lives to Christianity.

MORE INFO:

http://www.patriarchate.ge/_en/


MORE INFO ABOUT GEORGIA/SAKARTVELO:


TBILISI - Georgia's Capital Info:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tbilisi



All Info about TBILISI & Modern Georgia:


http://info-tbilisi.com





st. Shota Rustaveli & "The
Man in the Panther's Skin"






Read "The Man in the Panther's Skin"

by Shot'ha Rust'haveli

translated by Marjory Scott Wardrop

Read Online Book:

http://www.sacred-texts.com/asia/mps/index.htm



ECONOMY - Invest In Georgia:



"Georgia made the most extensive reforms,ranking as the top reformer
for the second year ina row...It is now as easy to comply with building regulations
in Tbilisi as it is in Hong Kong." - World Bank

More Info:

http://www.investingeorgia.org/


The Richest Georgians of the World

For the past 12 years the Georgian Times (Georgia Republic/Sakartvelo) has
been conducting an annual business rating to reveal the best companies and businessmen
of the year. This time we made up a top 80 rich Georgians of the planet on the
basis of the data provided by independent experts and famous businessmen (who
requested anonimity).

The capital of the wealthiest Georgians reflects the volume of assets and liabilities,
business and the market share that these people are holding.

The list of the richest Georgians of the world is being published for the first
time and may contain some minor inaccuracies which will be improved in the future, see the List:


http://geotimes.ge/index.php?m=home&newsid=3190


TBILISI VIDEOs:



click below to see: Video Tour in central street of Tbilisi at the night:

http://www.hotels.ltd.ge/video-audio/video2.php


Otar Ioseliani &
GEORGIAN CINEMA :




http://www.geocinema.org.ge/eng/main.htm

The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. One of the most acclaimed Italian film directors, Federico Fellini, was an admirer of the Georgian film:

“ Georgian film is a completely unique phenomenon, vivid, philosophically inspiring, very wise, childlike. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it (my crying) is not an easy thing."

 

VISIT:

http://www.GeorgianFilm.ge/


Nana Dzhordzhadze -


Nana was born in Tblisi, Georgia, then part of the Soviet Union. She studied architecture
in her home town and was an architect from 1968 to 1973. From 1974, she drew closer
to the movie world and studied cinema at the Tbilisi film school. She did several
jobs on the set (costumer, set designer, actress) but what she favored was film
direction and she made several films, often shorts, before winning the "Camera
d'Or" Award at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. She is one of the leading
filmmakers of Georgia, alongside Otar Ioseliani.


More Info & Awards for "27 Missing Kisses" by Nana
Dzhordzhadze http://us.imdb.com/title/tt0246405/awards


Georgi Daneliya
- is a Soviet/Russian film director of Georgian descent,
who became known throughout the Soviet Union for his sad comedies (as he styles
them), bittersweet as the life itself: http://us.imdb.com/name/nm0199381/bio

 

----


 

GEORGIAN FILM - HISTORY:

 

http://www.georgianfilm.ge /?section=143&lang_id=eng

Foreign cinematographers knew the significant style of Georgian films, that's why they always supported their authors and not only for their high professional abilities, but for their civil courage and selfless attitude to the art. Step by step the phenomenon of Georgian cinema started to appear.
In the one hundred years existence of the Georgian cinema there have been about 800 full-length films, TV and short films, almost 600 documentaries, scientific-popular and about 300 animations and puppet films produced.
Since the foundation of Georgian cinema lots of well-known Georgian directors have been working there, such as Alexander Tsutsunava, A. Digmelovi, K. Mardjanishvili,
V. Barski, Iv. Erestian, M. Kalatozov (Kalatozishvili), N. Shengelaia,
M. Chiaureli, D. Rondeli, V. Tabliashvili, N. Sanishvili. R. Chkheidze,
O. Ioseliani, E. Shengelaia, L. Gogoberidze, S. Faradjanov, G. Sheng

Georgian cinema has enjoyed wide popularity in almost all international festivals and forums: Cannes, Berlinale, Omerhousen, Venice, Rome and so on. After the fall of The Soviet Union economic and political crisis started in Georgia and film industry was not immune from the problems. Technicians and actors were fired, cinema production companies were closed and their finances were reduced. For almost 10 years the cinema industry had not been technically developed. The result was deplorable and the Georgian cinema industry almost stopped producing new movies.
At present our country tries to support the movie industry. The fundamental reconstruction works at the main building of studio GEORGIAN FILM have been completed. The building has been reconstructed according to modern standards and requirements. Latest production and post-production apparatutus, equipment and technologies have been bought.
Today we can proudly say that that the rejuvenated GEORGIAN FILM is able to be involved in the creation and development of the world movie industry again...

The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. One of the most acclaimed Italian film directors, Federico Fellini, was an admirer of the Georgian film:

“ Georgian film is a completely unique phenomenon, vivid, philosophically inspiring, very wise, childlike. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it (my crying) is not an easy thing."

 

VISIT:

http://www.GeorgianFilm.ge/

 

Unique Photos:

This website is dedicated to the Georgian trick riders who participated in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show and other American shows and circuses. The riders were wrongly named “Russian Cossacks”; in fact they were Georgians from the western part of Georgia (then part of Russian empire), Guria:

http://www.georgians.ge/all.htm

 

Georgian beauty - Georgian beauty was famed since the ancient times:

- All harems were mostly composed of Georgian women

- Remarkable amount of literature has been dedicated to Georgian beauty by such
authors as G. Byron, I. Kant, J. Chardin, A. Dumas, P. Angelus etc

- Scientists like J F Blumenbach considered Georgians scientifically the perfect
prototype of white race, and all beauty should be compared to it.

 

VISIT:

http://www.missgeorgia.ge/

 

----

PS:

The last remaining statue of Stalin in Gori will be replaced by a monument to the victims of the brief war between Georgia and Russia in 2008, Georgian Culture Minister Nikoloz Rurua said:



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10423308



AND:



Over 2.3 million Russians have voted in a historical campaign run by Rossiya TV, Russia's state funded Television station, meant to find the "face of Russia" - a leader, or public figure, who deserves to be thought of as the nation's face....


The votes were cast online, where Russian voters were given a choice of 50 leading cultural figures from Russian history. With over 280,000 votes, Stalin is currently leading:



http://www.pollsb.com/polls/p2032353-200 8_russians_vote_stalin_face_nation



+


A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country. Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who has died at the age of 89, embodied the biblical proverb probably more than any other Russian writer.



A Nobel prize winner for literature, hailed in the west as one of Russia's greatest writers, Solzhenitsyn was left without honour in his own country twice - the ... first time from the regime, the second from the people:

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b203a7ec-61a7- 11dd-af94-000077b07658.html

 

------

 

INVEST IN GEORGIA:

The World`s Leading Reformer The World Bank hails Georgias meteoric five-year rise from 112thin 2005 to 11th in the 2010 World Bank & IFC “Doing Business” Index as unprecedented. “Since the World Bank began keeping records,” says survey author Simeon Djankov, “no other country has made so many deep reforms in so many different areas so consistently.”

Georgian industry is very entrepreneurial and highly motivated to develop rapidly. As industries in Georgia develop, firms and investors are looking for opportunities to invest. The combination of dynamic economic growth, pro-business legislation, a liberal tax code, a strong legal framework to protect investors and an educated and skilled workforce presents a solid platform for successful business in Georgia.

More than 4,600 companies in Georgia were established by foreign investors . These firms have capitalized upon the skills and talents of Georgias multi-lingual and highly educated workforce.

  • Georgia offers competitive cost factors (labor, utilities, real estate, taxes).
  • Georgias workforce of 1.9 million people is highly educated – 30.8% have university degrees.
  • Average Gross Monthly Salaries are lower than European equivalents – USD 343 in 2009.
  • Georgia boasts low tariffs, streamlined border clearance procedures and preferential trade regimes with major partners, including the EU, CIS countries, the U.S. and Free Trade with Turkey. Georgia has been a member of the WTO since 2000 and has no quantitative restrictions on trade.
  • Georgia hosts an excellent infrastructure. Extensive public and private investment has developed a dynamic nationwide network of roads, railroads, waterways, harbors and airports. 
  • Georgias foreign trade has been growing rapidly since 2003 as a result of aggressive policy re­forms to make it easier and less expensive to trade across borders.
  • Georgia offers a high quality of living to visitors. Its environment is clean, with a focus on Green Energy and organic food production.

 

http://www.investingeorgia.org/

----

About Georgian Wines

"Georgia has produced the earliest evidence of wine selection and hence the emergence of the cultivated variety: Vitis vinifera sativa. Carbon-dating puts this change to domestication at about 5,000 BC."

"The Vintner's Art", Hugh Johnson & James Halliday


"The Transcaucasian region, home today to the Georgians, is one of Vitis vinifera sativa land and is believed to have been the place where grapes were first harvested to be made into wine some 7000 years ago."

"VINOPOLIS World Wine Guide", Oz Clark

 

http://www.georgianwinehouse.com/AboutGWine.asp


The ancient kingdom of Georgia is nestled along the southern exposures of the Great Caucasus Mountains, Europe's highest. Its remarkably varied topography ranges from near desert in the east to subtropical lowlands in the far west along the Black Sea coast that receive up from 1000mm-4000mm of rain per annum; and from sharp, snow-covered peaks in the north to the undulating plateaus, forests and plains that descend southward into Turkey. More than one-third of the country lies in this influential mountain system. Georgia has long been famous as an agricultural country. Almost everything grows there, given the wide range of climates and topography. But preeminent among Georgia's verdant harvest is wine.

Viticulture


Georgian viticulture is varied and complex. The irregularity and diversity of Georgia's terrain, its variable climate and changing soil cover, evolved over millennia a rich selection of vine-growing systems. Archeological and ethnological evidence - for example, seeds, vine trimming knives, and ornaments with depictions of vines that have been discovered in Georgia's ancient burial places of Mtskheta, Trialeti, Alazani Valley and Pitsunda, among others - date viticulture development in Georgia to the Eneolith period, that is from the end of 4th to the beginning of 3rd Millennia B.C. Georgia, many historians believe, is the birthplace of wine cultivation.

In ancient times, wild grapes prospered widely across Georgia. Rich stocks of native species emerged from both natural selection and purposeful cross-pollination that resulted in more than 500 varieties having commercial value. Among the most famous are Rkatsiteli, Sapheravi, Kakhuri Mtsvane, Aladasturi, Khikhvi, Ojaleshi, Alexandrouli, Chkhaveri, and Usakhelouri. For centuries, viticulture dominated Georgian agriculture, and it early became the main source of the Georgian population's economic welfare. By the second half of the 19th Century, vineyards occupied more than 70 thousand hectares in Georgia.

Vineyards are uncovered in Georgia. Seedlings are grafted; the shrub-keeping system is generally espalier (vertical), and, depending on ecological conditions and the peculiarities of species, are generally recognizable by their historical characteristics: fan shape, horizontal cordon, and both Georgian unilateral and bilateral forms, the latter often found in mountain conditions and in farmlands.

Georgia encompasses five distinct viticulture regions: Kakheti, Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and the Black Sea Coast.

In Georgia great importance is attached to "zoning" grapes by variety. More than 500 varieties are cultivated in the country, of which 27 are mainly zoned. These include: Aladasturi, Alexandrouli, Aligoté, Goruli Mtsvane, Cabernet-Souvignon, Kachichi, Krakhuna, Mujuretuli, Kakhuri Mtsvane, Ojaleshi, Rkatsiteli, Khikhvi, Tsitska, Chinuri, and Chardonay. Zoned table varieties include: Gorula, Kirovabad Table Wine, Kartuli Saadreo, Tbilisuri, Tskhenis Dzudzu and Shasla Tetri.

Winemaking

Monuments and documents have survived that confirm that winemaking was well advanced in Georgia long before Christ, and even that the wine was exported from Georgia to Europe at this time. With the coming of Christianity to Georgia at the beginning of the 4th Century, wine was used widely in religious ceremonies, a finding that is strengthened by the discovery of church wine plates. When Arab domination of Georgia retreated in the 11th Century, wine making techniques and the attendant technology improved markedly. Among the most innovative developments, for example in Kakheti, Imereti and Kartli, were the introduction of stone and wooden wine presses, and, especially, the famous double-walled earthenware jugs of large capacity (known as Kvevri), where the fermentation temperature of the must is regulated.

In the 17th Century, the French traveler Monsieur Sharden observed that Georgia produced a greater quantity of high quality wine than any other country. The production of sparkling wine and brandy emerged in 19th Century. By the 1870s, Georgia was producing 7.6 million decalitres of wine per annum, according to existing records. By 1913, this volume exceeded 9 million decalitres.

Today the main thrust of Georgian winemaking is the production of vintage, table dry and semisweet wines. Winemaking is generally concentrated in three regions: Kakheti, which produces from 60-70 percent of the total, Kartli and Imereti. Vintage and ordinary table wines of European and Kakhetian types are produced in Kakheti; wines of European type, as well as cognac and champagne, are prepared in Kartli; and wines of European and Imeretian types and brandy, as well as 80 percent of Georgia's sparkling wine, are produced in Imereti. High-quality semisweet wines such as Khvanchkara, Usakhelouri and Tvishi come mainly from the Racha-Lechkhumi region.

Teliani Valley Plc.

The Teliani Valley Winery is currently one of the top producers of quality Georgian wine. Established in 1997 on the site of a 19th century winery in Teliani village, its first vintage was released in 2000. In May 2004, the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development became the company's strategic financial partner, allowing the winery to make substantial improvements. These included completing a new production facility (commissioned in 2005), increasing quality by combining modern technologies with local traditions, improving management and marketing, and deepening branding.

Teliani Valley today exports to the United States, The Netherlands, Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, as well as to several countries in Central Asia.

READ MORE:

http://www.georgianwinehouse.com/AboutGWine.asp

-----------------------------------------------------

 

 

+ FACT: JEWS in GEORGIA - NO ANTI-SEMITISM:

 

READ & SHARE:

http://blogs.telegraph.co. uk/news/sarahmarcus/612879 6/The_Jews_in_Georgia/

"...When I first heard from Georgians that Jews had always been welcome in their country and had suffered little persecution there I was curious to establish the accuracy of this claim.

With all that Jews had suffered in central and eastern Europe, imperial Russia and the Soviet Union over the years, I wondered whether Georgia really could have been an honourable exception to the general anti-Semitic climate of these regions.

I went to Tbilisi's Great Synagogue, one of three synagogues in Georgia's capital, situated near a mosque and an Orthodox church, and spoke to Rabbi Avimelekh Rosenblatt about Georgia's Jews.

He said that it was largely true that Jews in Georgia had not suffered the same degree of persecution as was experienced in other areas of the Russian and Soviet empires. Georgia has also been a place of refuge for Jews fleeing from pogroms and anti-Semitism in other countries.

Many, including the Rabbi's forefathers, came to Georgia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, escaping the wave of pogroms in the Pale of Settlement, the areas in the Baltic countries, Ukraine, Poland and Belorussia where the Jews of Imperial Russia were permitted to live...."

 

 

-----

 

THE GOLDEN FLEECE

Jason and the Golden Fleece.

In very ancient times there lived in Thessaly a king and queen named Athamas and Nephele. They had two children, a boy and a girl. After a time Athamas grew indifferent to his wife, put her away, and took another. Nephele suspected danger to her children from the influence of the step-mother and took measures to send them out of her reach. Mercury assisted her and gave her a ram, with a golden fleece, on which she set the two children, trusting that the ram would convey them to a place of safety. The ram vaulted into the air with the children on his back, taking his course to the east, till when crossing the strait that divides Europe and Asia, the girl, whose name was Helle, fell from his back into the sea, which from her was called the Hellespont--now the Dardanelles. The ram continued his career till he reached the kingdom of Colchis, on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, where he safely landed the boy Phryxus, who was hospitably received by Æetes, the king of the country. Phryxus sacrificed the ram to Jupiter, and gave the golden fleece to Æetes, who placed it in a consecrated grove, under the care of a sleepless dragon.

There was another kingdom in Thessaly near to that of Athamas and ruled over by a relative of his. The King Æson, being tired of the cares of government, surrendered his crown to his brother Pelias, on condition that he should hold it only during the minority of Jason, the son of Æson. When Jason was grown up and came to demand the crown from his uncle, Pelias pretended to be willing to yield it, but at the same time suggested to the young man the glorious adventure of going in quest of the golden fleece, which it was well known was in the kingdom of Colchis and was, as Pelias pretended, the rightful property of their family. Jason was pleased with the thought and forthwith made preparations for the expedition. At that time the only species of navigation known to the Greeks consisted of small boats or canoes hollowed out from trunks of trees, so that when Jason employed Argus to build him a vessel capable of containing fifty men, it was considered a gigantic undertaking. It was accomplished, however, and the vessel named Argo, from the name of the builder. Jason sent his invitation to all the adventurous young men of Greece and soon found himself at the head of a band of bold youths, many of whom afterwards were renowned among the heroes and demigods of Greece. Hercules, Theseus, Orpheus, and Nestor were among them. They are called the Argonauts, from the name of their vessel.

The Argo with her crew of heroes left the shores of Thessaly and, having touched at the Island of Lemnos, thence crossed to Mysia and thence to Thrace. Here they found the sage Phineus, and from him received instruction as to their future course. It seems the entrance of the Euxine Sea was impeded by two small rocky islands which floated on the surface and, in their tossings and heavings, occasionally came together, crushing and grinding to atoms any object that might be caught between them. They were called the Symplegades, or Clashing Islands. Phineus instructed the Argonauts how to pass this dangerous strait. When they reached the islands they let go a dove, which took her way between the rocks and passed in safety, only losing some feathers of her tail. Jason and his men seized the favorable moment of the rebound, plied their oars with vigor, and passed safe through, though the islands closed behind them and actually grazed their stern. Then now rowed along the shore till they arrived at the eastern end of the sea, and landed at the kingdom of Colchis.

Jason made known his message to the Colchian king, Æetes, who consented to give up the golden fleece if Jason would yoke to the plough two fire-breathing bulls with brazen feet, and sow the teeth of the dragon, which Cadmus had slain, and from which it was well known that a crop of armed men would spring up, who would turn their weapons against their producer. Jason accepted the conditions, and a time was set for making the experiment. Previously, however, he found means to plead his cause to Medea, daughter of the king. He promised her marriage, and as they stood before the altar of Hecate, called the goddess to witness his oath. Medea yielded--and by her aid, for she was a potent sorceress, he was furnished with a charm, by which he could encounter safely the breath of the fire-breathing bulls and the weapons of the armed men.

At the time appointed, the people assembled at the grove of Mars, and the king assumed his royal seat, while the multitude covered the hillsides. The brazen-footed bulls rushed in, breathing fire from their nostrils, that burned up the herbage as they passed. The sound was like the roar of a furnace, and the smoke like that of water upon quick-lime. Jason advanced boldly to meet them. His friends, the chosen heroes of Greece, trembled to behold him. Regardless of the burning breath, he soothed their rage with his voice, patted their necks with fearless hand, and adroitly slipped over them the yoke, and compelled them to drag the plough. The Colchians were amazed; the Greeks shouted for joy. Jason next proceeded to sow the dragon's teeth and plough them in. And soon the crop of armed men sprang up, and wonderful to relate! no sooner had they reached the surface than they began to brandish their weapons and rush upon Jason. The Greeks trembled for their hero, and even she who had provided him a way of safety and taught him how to use it, Medea herself, grew pale with fear. Jason for a time kept his assailants at bay with his sword and shield, till finding their numbers overwhelming, he resorted to the charm which Medea had taught him, seized a stone, and threw it in the midst of his foes. They immediately turned their arms against one another, and soon there was not one of the dragon's brood left alive. The Greeks embraced their hero, and Medea, if she dared, would have embraced him too.

It remained to lull to sleep the dragon that guarded the fleece, and this was done by scattering over him a few drops of a preparation which Medea had supplied. At the smell he relaxed his rage, stood for a moment motionless, then shut his great round eyes, that had never been known to shut before, and turned over on his side, fast asleep. Jason seized the fleece and, with his friends and Medea accompanying, hastened to their vessel, before Æetes, the king, could arrest their departure, and made the best of their way back to Thessaly, where they arrived safe, and Jason delivered the fleece to Pelias, and dedicated the Argo to Neptune. What became of the fleece afterwards we do not know, but perhaps it was found after all, like many other Golden prizes, not worth the trouble it had cost to procure it.

This is one of those mythological tales, says a late writer, in which there is reason to believe that a substratum of truth exists, though overlaid by a mass of fiction. It probably was the first important maritime expedition, and like the first attempts of the kind of all nations, as we know from history, was probably of a half-piratical character. If rich spoils were the result, it was enough to give rise to the idea of the golden fleece.

Another suggestion of a learned mythologist, Bryant, is that it is a corrupt tradition of the story of Noah and the ark. The name Argo seems to countenance this, and the incident of the dove is another confirmation.

Pope, in his "Ode on St. Cecilia's Day," thus celebrates the launching of the ship Argo and the power of the music of Orpheus, whom he calls the Thracian:

So when the first bold vessel dared the seas,
High on the stern the Thracian raised his strain,
While Argo saw her kindred trees
Descend from Pelion to the main.
Transported demigods stood round,
And men grew heroes at the sound.

In Dyer's poem of The Fleece there is an account of the ship Argo and her crew which gives a good picture of this primitive maritime adventure:

From every region of Ægea's shore
The brave assembled; those illustrious twins
Castor and Pollux; Orpheus, tuneful bard;
Zetes and Calais, as the wind in speed;
Strong Hercules and many a chief renowned.
On deep Iolcos' sandy shore they thronged,
Gleaming in armor, ardent of exploits;
And soon, the laurel cord and the huge stone
Uplifting to the deck unmoored the bark;
Whose keel of wondrous length the skilful hand
Of Argus fashioned for the proud attempt;
And in the extended keel a lofty mast
Upraised, and sails full swelling; to the chiefs
Unwonted objects. Now first, now they learned
Their bolder steerage over ocean wave,
Led by the golden stars, as Chiron's art
Had marked the sphere celestial...

Hercules left the expedition at Mysia, for Hylas, a youth beloved by him, having gone for water, was laid hold of and kept by the nymphs of the spring, who were fascinated by his beauty. Hercules went in quest of the lad, and while he was absent the Argo put to sea and left him. Moore, in one of his songs, makes a beautiful allusion to this incident:

When Hylas was sent with his urn to the fount,
Through fields full of light and with heart full of play,
Light rambled the boy over meadow and mount,
And neglected his task for the flowers in the way.

Thus many like me, who in youth should have tasted
The fountain that runs by Philosophy's shrine,
Their time with the flowers on the margin have wasted,
And left their light urns all as empty as mine.

Purchase books on Mythology


"The Golden Fleece" is reprinted from The Age of Fable. Thomas Bullfinch. Boston: Lothrop, 1894.


Georgias article with information on history, administrative subdivisions, origin of the name, geography, landscape, climate, politics, culture, republic of georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian georgian georgian georgia lottery georgia lottery georgia caucasus map travel caucasus map georgia gudauta sukhumi tskhinvali south ossetia samachablo sakartvelo The Caucasus or Caucas is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe's highest mountain (Mount Elbrus) , Caucasus information, including Mount Elbrus and Kazbek trips and maps Adventure Travels and Tourism in the Republic of Georgia Caucasus Mountains , Caucasus information, including Mount Elbrus and Kazbek trips and maps, Georgia used to be called, justifiably, the Switzerland of the Soviet Union exUSSR Sukhumi, the capital of Abkhazia in the far northwest of Georgia , The state is crossed by the ranges of the Greater Caucasus The country of Golden Fleece Politik, Kultur, Geschichte, Wirtschaft, Internet und andere
georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian Georgias article with information on history, administrative subdivisions, origin of the name, geography, landscape, climate, politics, culture, republic of georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian georgia caucasus republic of georgia caucasus caucasian tbilisi caucasus music culture history russia war caucasus politics conflict moscow stalin saakashvili shevardnadze kremlin georgia sport art cusine turism drive car airport services tickets caucasus army colchis iveria samegrelo abkhazia south ossetia kutaisi katie melua information bio caucasus ethnography books lessons georgian language schools dmanisi europe iran turkey georgia armenia azerbaijan chechnia caucasus war georgian folk choral music caucasus map direction north south caucasus cacasus cocasus cockasian cocoasus georgia tbilisi map space travel georgia mountain festival batumi sukhumi tskhinvali army ioseliani film movies beria stalin wine david marshall lang sakartvelo kartvelian georgian georgian georgia lottery georgia lottery georgia caucasus map travel caucasus map georgia gudauta sukhumi tskhinvali south ossetia samachablo sakartvelo The Caucasus or Caucas is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe's highest mountain (Mount Elbrus) , Caucasus information, including Mount Elbrus and Kazbek trips and maps Adventure Travels and Tourism in the Republic of Georgia Caucasus Mountains , Caucasus information, including Mount Elbrus and Kazbek trips and maps, Georgia used to be called, justifiably, the Switzerland of the Soviet Union exUSSR Sukhumi, the capital of Abkhazia in the far northwest of Georgia , The state is crossed by the ranges of the Greater Caucasus The country of Golden Fleece Politik, Kultur, Geschichte, Wirtschaft, Internet und andere